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lauren kiyoto

on 15 May 2013

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Transcript of civics

By Lauren Kiyoto Civics Project Table Of Contents Unit 1: Citizenship
Unit 2: Political Process
Unit 3: Roots of American Democracy
Unit 4: U.S Constitution & National Government
Unit 5: Economics Voting The qualification to vote in Virginia is: Political Process National Government The government is separated into three branches legislative, judicial, and executive. These three branches have a power, they are separated by a system of checks and balances, so no branch gets to much power. Citizenship The first amendment protects our freedoms of: What is a Citizen? By definition, a citizen is a person that belongs to a country, having all it's rights, duties and responsibilities. But being born isn't the only way to be a part of a country, there is a process called the Naturalization Process. The Naturalization Process is: Amendments Responsibility, Duties
and Traits Every citizen has responsibilities and duties. Responsibilities are things that you should do while duties are things you should do, if you don't legal action will be taken against you. - Pay taxes
- Obey laws
- Serve in armed forces if called
- Serve as a witness or on jury if summoned - Register and vote
- Hold elective office
- Serve in voluntary, appointed
government positions
- Participate in political campaigns
- Keep informed with current issues
- Respect others’ right to an equal voice in government
- Keep informed Citizens should also demonstrate the following traits:
Trustworthiness, honesty, courtesy, respect for the rights of others, responsibility, accountability, self-reliance, and patriotism Political Spectrum Political Parties The function of political parties is to recruit and nominate candidates, educate voters of the party's platform, act as watchdogs and raise money to help candidates. There are two major parties, democrats and republicans, they both organize to win elections, influence public policies, reflect both liberal and conservative view and define themselves in a way that wins the majority support. There are also third parties main uses are to introduce new ideas or press for a particular issue, they usually work for only one cause, they often revolve around political personality. The political spectrum shows the three different political positions. Media Media has several roles in elections: identifying political candidates, emphasizing selected issues, writing editorials, creating political cartoons or publishing op-ed pieces, broadcasting different points of view. You evaluate media by separating fact from opinion, detecting bias, evaluating sources, and identifying propaganda. The Naturalization Process Take classes to prepare for life in that country Interview and Test, is it is approved the person must meet with an immigration official and pass the Citizenship Test Live in the U.S for 5 years (3 years if you are married to a U.S citizen and 1 year if your in the military File an Declaration of Intent Apply for Naturalization Applicant must be at least 18 years old Oath of Allegiance, the person must take a pledge to the U.S before a judge The fourteenth amendment defines the means of becoming a citizen, naturalization and birth. The fourteenth amendment also protects Due Process along with the fifth amendment. The fifth stops the national government from acting unfairly while the fourteenth stops the state government
from acting unfairly. Religion Assembly Petition Press Speech Moderate views change depending on the topic being discussed. Democrats prefer a larger government role in people's lives. Republicans prefer less government role and more independent freedom for citizens Democrats (Liberals) Republicans (Conservative) Moderates There are factors that influence who vote: age, income, education. But, in order to vote you must register, you can register in a number of different places the DMV, public libraries, online, etc. but you must register 22 days before the election. Usually, the presidential election has greater turn out then local and state election.
Though voting is simple many people fail to do so, this is called voter apathy. There are two reasons people
don't vote: lack of interest, and failure to register. Voter
apathy is bad, in elections, every vote counts! Being a U.S citizen Be a resident of Virginia Be 18 years old Apathy it is lack of interest. Propaganda is misleading messages designed to manipulate people. Campaigns Running for political office is very expensive, it requires candidates to conduct fund raising activities. This limits opportunity to run for public office and gives an advantage to wealthy candidates. Also it encourages the development of PAC, Political action Committees.
The expenses also gives issue- oriented special interest groups increased influence because they can donate money to candidates who favor their causes. This led to reform campaign finance laws, these laws limit the amount an individual can contribute to political candidates and
campaigns. A political organization made by a corporation, labor union or special interest groups designed to support candidates by contributing money. Electoral College The electoral college is a group of people, called electors, that are officially elect the President and the Vice- President after the general population voted. The electoral college process is: The public votes for the candidates. But, on the ballot, its the names of the electors representing for each candidate. The electors of each state then cast their vote for President and Vice-President. The winner in most states is decided by the winner-take-all system. The number of electors is determined by congressional representation, the number of senators plus number of representatives in each state. Virginia has 13 electors! The votes are collected and counted, it takes 270 electoral votes to win. This is why candidates target larger states. A statement expressing the parties principles, beliefs and position in election issues Roots of American Democracy Fundamental Principals Fundamental Principals are the basic principals that shape and define American constitutional government. Consent of the Governed The government only has the power that the people give it. Limited Government The government is not all powerful, it can only do the things that the people have given it the power to do. Rule of Law All people, including those that govern, are bound by the law. Democracy The people rule Representative Government People elect officeholders to make the laws and conduct government on the people's behalf. Founding Documents Preamble of the Constitution Charters of the Virginia Company of London The charters of the Virginia Company of London guaranteed the rights of Englishmen to the colonists. Virginia Declaration of Rights The Virginia Declaration of Rights served as a model for the Bill of Rights of the Constitution of the United States of America. Declaration of Independence -Stated grievances against the king of Great Britain
– Declared the colonies’ independence from Great Britain
– Affirmed “certain unalienable rights” (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness) established the idea that all people are equal under the law. The Articles of Confederation - Established the first form of national government for the independent states– maintained that major powers resided with individual states– created weak central government (e.g., no power to tax or enforce laws)
- Led to the writing of the Constitution of the United States of America. Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom stated freedom of religious beliefs and opinions.
• established the structure of the United States government
• guaranteed equality under
the law with majority rule
and the rights of the
minority protected
• affirmed individual worth
and dignity of all people
• protected the fundamental freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition. The Constitution of the United States of America, including the Bill of Rights, " We the people of the united states, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, ensure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity,
do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America." The Preamble sets all the goals and purposes for the government. The Preamble states: Make sure that within the country the laws and order is being upheld. The protection of the country against foreign attacks. The well-being of the citizens. To protect people's personal freedoms. Amending the Constitution Amending the US Constitution takes two steps: Proposal Ratification Action taken by Congress or convention By at least 2/3 the states Amending the VA Constitution takes similar steps: Proposal Ratification Action taken by the General Assembly or convention By the voters of VA There are currently 27 amendments in the US Constitution. Checks and Balances Judicial Executive Legislative • Consists of the Congress, a bicameral legislature consisting of the House of Representatives (435 members, based upon populations of the states) and the Senate (100 members—two per state)
• Makes the laws of the nation
• Approves the annual budget
• Confirms presidential appointments
• Raises revenue through taxes and other levies
• Regulates interstate and foreign trade
• Declares war Executes the law of the land
The president is head of is this branch he uses cabinet departments, agencies and regulatory groups to interpret and help with carrying out laws
Prepares the annual budget
Appoints cabinet officers, ambassadors, and federal judges
Administers the federal bureaucracy Consists of the federal courts, including the Supreme Court, the highest court in the land
Has the power of judicial review. Judicial Review is the ability to decide if laws are constitutional. President nominates judges. The court can declare the presidents acts unconstitutional. Can impeach the president
Refuse to approve treats
Can override a veto with 2/3 the vote President can veto congressional legislation. Can impeach judges and reject appointments Can declare laws constitutional. Legislative powers can be:
Expressed powers that are specifically listed in the Constitution of the United States or implied powers are used to carry out expressed powers. US Constitution & National Government How a Bill Becomes a Law Introduced Committee Debate Voting Introducing a bill by a Senator or Representative Working in committees Debating the bill on the floor of each house Voting on the bill in each house President/ Governor Sending the bill to the President or Governor, depending if it is a state law or a national one, to sign into law. Federalism Reserved powers are powers that are reserved for the states. Expressed powers are powers that are for national government, they are listed in the Constitution. Concurrent powers are powers they share. declare war
conduct foreign affairs
Regulate trade
coin money
maintain navy and army
etc. regulate trade within the state
protect public welfare and safety
conduct elections
establish local government
local government establish courts
enforce laws
collect taxes
borrow money
provide for the general welfare Federal State Both Judicial System
VA Court System Virginia Supreme Court Court of Appeals Circuit Courts General District Courts Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Courts Magistrates Limited original Jurisdiction
Court of final appeal Judges
Appellate Jurisdiction Original Jurisdiction for criminal case and civil cases over $15,000
Judge and jury Civil cases less than $15,000 you can ask for a jury
Original jurisdiction of misdemeanors
Judge Family court, child custody, felonies and misdemeanors by juveniles
Original Jurisdiction of cases involving juveniles
Judge In charge of search warrants, subpoenas, summons, arrest warrants and set bail. US Supreme Court US Court of Appeals US District Court Judicial System
Federal Appellate Jurisdiction
Limited Original Jurisdiction- involving cases and Origin diplomats or states
Justices Appellate Jurisdiction
Justices Original Jurisdiction
Constitution issues
Federal laws a are broken
Disputes between states themselves or people from different states
Judges and jury Appellate Jurisdiction- the ability to hear a case from a lower court. Original Jurisdiction- the ability to hear a case for the first time. Judicial Review- the ability to declare laws unconstitutional
This was given to us by Marbury vs. Madison case! It also stated that the Constitution is the supreme law of the land, that the states must conform to those laws. Economics Economic Concepts Production Production is the combining of human, natural, capital, and entrepreneurship resources to make goods or provide services. Resources available and consumer preferences determine what is produced. The amount of a good or service that consumers are willing and able to buy at a certain price. Demand Supply Supply is the amount of a good or service that producers are willing and able to sell at a certain price. Supply and Demand Interaction of supply and demand determines price. Scarcity The inability to satisfy all your wants at the same time. Due Process protects against unfair governmental actions and laws. Individuals are free to express their opinion and beliefs The press has the right to gather and publish information,even if it criticizes the government Individuals have the right to make their views known to public officials Individuals have the right to gather peacefully Government may not establish an official religion nor endorse, or unduly interfere with the free exercise of religion Elected officials write laws and take action in response to problem or issue. This is the process: Resources Factors of production that are used in the production of goods and services. The types of resources are natural, human, capital and entrepreneur. Price amount of money exchanged for a good or service. Price determines who acquires goods and services. Opportunity Cost What is given up when a choice is made. Individuals must consider value of what is given up when making a choice. Choice Selecting an item or action from a set of possible alternatives. State Government Legislative Makes laws for state
Approves biannual budget
Exercise power under the tenth amendment Executive Executes laws state
Prepares biennial budget for General Assembly
Appoints cabinet officers and boards
Administrate state bureaucracy
Grants pardons Judicial The Supreme Court has power of judicial review over state laws
Circuit Court try civil and criminal cases Local Government Legislative Makes ordinances for community
Approves annual budget
Limits powers to that delegated by the state Executive Elected or appointed by the Board of Supervisors or City Council
City county managers hired by local legislature Judicial District courts hear cases under the authority provided by the state legislation Business Ownership Proprietorship Proprietorship has one owner who takes all the risks and all profits. Partnership has two or more owners who share risks and profits. Partnership Corporation Corporation is a business organization authorized by law to act as a legal person regardless of number of owners, they share the profits. Owner liability is limited to investment. Entrepreneur An entrepreneur is a person who takes risks to produce goods and services in search of profits. Markets Free Market Private ownership of property or resources
Profit and Competition
Consumer sovereignty Central ownership of property or resources
Centrally-planned economy
Lack of consumer choice Command Mixed Individuals and business as decision makers for private sectors
Government as decision makers for the public sector
A greater government role than in a free market economy
Most common economic system today Financial Institution Some examples are banks, savings and loans, credit union etc.
They receive deposits and make loans
Also they encourage saving and investing by paying interest on deposits.
The Federal Reserve is the central bank of US, it is like the bank's bank controlling the flow of money. The Fed can slow the economy by increasing the reserve requirement or discount rate or by selling government securities. The Fed stimulates the economy by increasing its money supply, lowering its reserve requirement or discount rate or purchasing government securities. Global Economy The global economy is the worldwide markets in which the buying and selling of goods and services by all nations. There are a few reasons that states and nations trade:
Obtain goods or services they can't or produce efficiently themselves
Buy goods and services at a lower cost or a lower opportunity cost
Sell goods and services to other countries ( create jobs) Economic Flow Businesses Individual Government save money in backs
own the resources used in production
use income to purchase products Buy resources
Make products to sell to individuals
Borrow money
Seek goods and service for profit Use tax revenue from individuals and business to provide public goods and services Arrested Police need a probable cause to arrest someone. Jail or Bail You either go to jail or released on bail. Arraignment Probable cause is reviewed plea is entered. Trial Court date is set, trial is conducted. Appeals Guilty verdict maybe appealed to a higher court. Criminal Case Civil Case Complaint Filed Lawyers for the plaintiff file a lawsuit to recover damages or compensation. Response by Defendant The defense lawyers get to respond. Trial Judge and Jury hear both sides and renders a verdict. Appeals Losing from either side may take the case to a higher court.
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