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S&T 02 Types of Research
Transcript of S&T 02 Types of Research
The experimental method is a systematic and scientific approach to research in which the researcher
manipulates one or more variables
, and controls and measures any change in other variables.
The use of
to support the viewpoint or argument of an academic work
Documentary research involves the use of texts and documents as source materials:
government publications, newspapers, certificates, census publications, novels, film and video, paintings, personal photographs, diaries and innumerable other written, visual and pictorial sources in paper, electronic, or other `hard copy' form.
Field research can be described as a study conducted in a natural setting
outside of a laboratory
Participant observation, data collection, and survey research are examples of field research : Cultural anthropologists.
What type of research was performed in the video?
How could the results have changed if the experiment was performed in a different environment?
Qualitative is used to uncover and understand thoughts and opinions thus providing a basis for further decision making.
Data can be
but not measured.
Colors, textures, smells, tastes, appearance, beauty, etc.
Qualitative --> Quality
Quantitative research is used to measure and predict, leading to a final course of action.
Data which can be
Length, height, area, volume, weight, speed, time, temperature, humidity, sound levels, cost, members, ages, etc.
Quantitative --> Quantity
Different types of
What do you want to know?
How will you get that knowledge?
(why, how, who?)
Designed to provide further insight into the research problem by describing the variables of interest.
Can be used for profiling, defining, segmentation, estimating, predicting, and examining associative relationships.
(If this, then that)
Designed to provide information on potential cause-and-effect relationships.
Most practical in marketing to talk about associations or impact of one variable on another.
Designed to generate basic knowledge, clarify relevant issues uncover variables associated with a problem, uncover information needs, and/or define alternatives for addressing research objectives.
A very flexible, open-ended process.
How much can we control?
This is the factor manipulated by the researcher, and it produces one or more results, known as dependent variables.
For example, an experiment to test the effects of a certain fertilizer, upon plant growth, could measure height, number of fruits and the average weight of the fruit produced. All of these are valid analyzable factors, arising from the manipulation of one independent variable, the amount of fertilizer.
The dependent variable is the measurable outcome of this manipulation, the results of the experimental design.
There are often not more than one or two independent variables tested in an experiment, otherwise it is difficult to determine the influence of each upon the final results.
"Correlation Is Not Causation":
when there is a correlation it does not mean that one thing causes the other
The key issues surrounding types of documents and our ability to use them as reliable sources of evidence on the social world must be considered by all who use documents in their research. The paucity of sources available until now means that this compendium will be invaluable to social researchers. " [Scott 2006]
The process of documentary research often involves some or all of conceptualizing, using and assessing documents. The analysis of the documents in documentary research would be either quantitative or qualitative analysis (or both). [Balihar, Sanghera]
The process is utilized in most academic work.
In field research, observational findings are considered strong in validity because the researcher is able to collect a depth of information about a particular behavior. However, there are negative aspects. There are problems with reliability and generalizability.
Reliability refers the extent that observations can be replicated. Seeing behaviors occur over and over again may be a time consuming task.
Generalizability, or external validity, is described by Trochim as the extent that the study's findings would also be true for other people, in other places, and at other times. In field research, observational findings may only reflect a unique population and therefore cannot be generalized to others.
There are also problems with researcher bias. Often it is assumed that the researcher may "see what they want to see." Bias, however, can often be overcome with training or electronically recording observations. Hence, overall, observations are a valuable tool for researchers
It is a collection of research designs which use manipulation and controlled testing to understand causal processes. Generally, one or more variables are manipulated to determine their effect on a dependent variable.
Experimental research is commonly used in sciences such as sociology and psychology, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine etc.
The word experimental research has a range of definitions. In the strict sense, experimental research is what we call a true experiment.
This is an experiment where the researcher manipulates one variable, and control/randomizes the rest of the variables. It has a control group, the subjects have been randomly assigned between the groups, and the researcher only tests one effect at a time. It is also important to know what variable(s) you want to test and measure.