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OS3DP - Educating with RepRap Technology

An ever-evolving Prezi describing the use of RepRaps at PSU (and elsewhere)

Dafydd Sindjinn

on 20 January 2015

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Transcript of OS3DP - Educating with RepRap Technology

What is '
RepRap stands for "
id Prototyper".

It is an
open source
3D printer designed for self-manufacture of many of its structural components.
RepRap Darwin?
The primary conceit is that you might, through trial and error, "breed" the better and more replicatable designs, "evolving the design genome"
How to earn points?
Attendance: Be here and not useless
Wiki: Make it better! Add pictures!
Blog Assignments:
Do some writing, use your brain
Choose a quest and complete it
Print Service: We are the champions
Achievements: One-time accomplishments
Being Awesome: Often leads to bonus points

How to LOSE points?
-Abusing Printers
-Being Unsafe
-Disobeying primary obligation (THINK!)

Build Projects*
Tip Manufacture
Filament Recycler
Dual Extruder
Paste Extruder
Fab@home/Pen Plotter
Update solidworks OHM
100XP per section of lecture time. (~100XP/hour)
31 Class sessions + Design Expo (~6 hours) =
Adrian Bowyer: "What is RepRap"
312 Hammond Building
~12 RepRaps (+6)
University Park
PSU Brandywine
3D printing
Club (4)
University Park
Park Forest M.S.
The RepRap Wiki: Make it better
Max XP earned through exceptional, dedicated work.
Substantive wiki edit: A paragraph consisting of five complete sentences of new information and at least one like or picture, or an amount of added content equal to this as judged by the GM/DM -> ~100XP
Nexus of Reprap information
Our project page
What is wiki?
Blogs: A variety of topics will be posted as prompts throughout the semester. You will need to post your own responses to your personal wiki talk page.

Each blog post is worth 200XP Maximum, for thoughtful, substantive work with reference links. The Grade date for each blog will be posted, which signifies the point at which its point value starts decaying exponentially.

XP halflife = 1/2 week
Course Syllabus:
What does our 3D printing process consist of?
Obtain Design and STL
etc. (Solidworks)
Confirm Orientation and "
" of design:
Render GCode from STL:
ReplicatorG (skeinforge)
Send GCode to printer using a client:
Food Science?
Open Source and 3D printing create new possibilities for low-cost research equipment:
Dremelfuge -
Cathal Garvey
3DP in Chemical Engineering: Lee Cronin
-Single use 3D printed reactionware

3DP in Biology: Jordan Miller
Extruding glassy sugars to create scaffolds for cell growth and/or organ templating
Open Source Appropriate Technologies (OSAT)- Joshua Pierce
Additive Manufacturing appears to be encroaching on other areas as well :
-Food -Fashion
-Defense / weapons
-Intellectual Property and Law
3DP in Anthropology:
Mark Shriver
Scans faces and correlates features with genotype
Converts face data to STL -->
3D printing faces
PSU Erie
Reasons to use RepRaps
-Cheap compared to commercial systems, both in initial investments, and long term operation ($!)
-Open Source implies flexiblity, adaptablity, repairablity, etc. No service contracts, but a wide community of support
-As an educational platform, it can be used to facilitate discussion of many technical subjects
-Students contribute
locally and globally
as they learn, work, print, build, and upload results
A few more reasons to consider RepRaps
(or at the very least, having your own 3D printer):

-Often Spawns unpredicted collaborations
-Additive Manufacturing seems to have viral status and federal attention (see NAMII)
-Lots of low hanging fruit for academia, as much groundbreaking work is being done in basements otherwise
PSU New Kensington
PSU York
Open Source 3D Printing

David B. Saint John
January 20th, 2015

Spectroscopic Ellipsometry
Transmission Electron Microscopy
X-Ray Computed Tomography

an educator by training, but by accident
B.S. Physics - Millersville University, 2006
Ph.D Materials Science - Penn State, December 2012
Post-Doctoral Researcher in Additive Manufacturing, 2013 - 2015
@ CIMP-3D w/ Professor Timothy Simpson
Transformative Technologies
and the nature of our realities
'Nanotechnology' --> Additive Manufacturing --> Fall 2010
Additive Manufacturing
" is the umbrella term for a variety of transformative technologies which produce objects from 3D models, typically in a layer-by-layer process

3D Printing
" is perhaps the most common phrasing in current media to describe this, although an older term is "
Rapid Prototyping
". This term appears to be phasing out.

You may remember the "Replicator" from
Star Trek
or the "body printer" in
The Fifth Element
These are the fictional precursors (and perhaps future forms)
A biological philosophy for iterative design: Use Breeding
Semester Students RepRaps
Spring 2011 11 +2.5
Fall 2011 24 +4
Spring 2012 22 +3
Fall 2012 43 +4
Spring 2013 23 (+6)
Fall 2013 23
Spring 2014 26 +3

Overview of EDSGN 497X at UP:
Funding for equipment generously provided by the Shuman Foundation
Latest illustration:
Microprobe and Roachscope for Ruud Schilder
meeting more simple needs:
To do:
Make accounts on RepRap Wiki

cede.psu.edu bottom left
fill out form
"A printer that prints more printers"
Several areas must be addressed with AM in mind for long term progress:
Interdisciplinary Information Transfer
Research for AM
AM for Research
Education for AM
AM for Education
AM for Design
Design for AM
Multi Material, multi process systems
How can AM facilitate current research?
How can AM facilitate extant subjects?
How do we educate students in regard to AM?
How do constraints of AM change design?
How does having an object in hand alter the design process?
How might we extend 3D printing to every school who wants to use it?
Commercial Systems are expensive
(both the curriculum AND the technology)
- Both intial and upkeep ($$$)

Commercial Systems are closed
- A push button experience with limited experimentation

Is there a way to address these issues?
Subtractive (-) Manufacturing

-Start with a solid and machine it to form
-Wasted material can be substantial
-Design freedom limited by tooling and geometry
Additive (+) Manufacturing

-Less wasted material
-Different design limitations, allowing for new possibilities!
-Newer models are affordable enough for personal use (Why?!)
Selective Binding and Selective Deposition processes allow the printing of polymers, ceramics, metals, and other materials (typically one at a time)
Now, it's come to this:
It began simply...
It started in my basement, but rapidly grew out of control as the machines began printing themselves!
- Becoming more affordable and usable
- New solutions to problems may be a print away and you might not need to design it!
- A powerful tool for Entrepreneurs
- A useful tool for Educators
Extruder Overview

Extrusion isn't new. It's used routinely, to do things like make the filament we put into our extruders.

What I want to discuss is the evolution of the current extruder and hot tip designs used in our own 3D printers, especially as we often seem to need to make more of them. =(

Adrian's Extruder
Wade's NEMA 17
6713 (v2)
8252 (v3)
Bowden: seperating the hot tip from the extruder
Hot Tip designs:

Many early designs were hybrid metal/ceramic/wood
More recent designs are more stable than some of the intial ones...
Why might it matter what you call it?
While new developments are sometimes introducted by existing AM companies, most of their efforts lie in protecting the IP they already hold

The most new and innovative ideas often come from the fringes, the margins, the bazaar. Open source allows this to happen more quickly, with less expense, so that the advances of few can be adopted by many.
Mathematical Manufacturing? (±)

Many students have gone on to build their own printers.
If you do too, please let me know!
Now, explore the space, and get familiar with where the equipment goes (so you can return it!)
Next time: The Game, also Print training!

Contact me : dbsaintjohn@engr.psu.edu
The PSU 3D printing club meets in 312 Hammond on
Sunday(6pm) and Monday (7pm)
Open Source 3D Printing of Metal

Pearce Group, Michigan Tech
-Strong Bootstrapping Capabilities
Applications to Research
Hershey Medical Center
Early tip designs were pretty awkward.
Newer designs are mostly or entirely metal.
You'll never print teflon with a teflon insulator in your nozzle.
Our design is largely inherited from TechZone, the now defunct company who sold us our first kits.
What makes Open Source disruptive?
Bittorrent <-> Media Industry
RepRap <-> Manufacturing Industry
Bitcoin <-> Financial Industry
Open Source and Distributed Systems clash with traditional conceptions of property
Some comparisons:
3D Scanning (Object --> Data)
Several methods are available:
-Computed Tomography (not at all cheap)
-Laser Scanners (Not very cheap)
-Photographic methods (Pretty Easy, cheap)
-XBOX Kinect as 3D scanner (Easy, cheap)

Free and Open Source options are out there:

With a 3D printer in hand, there are a variety of projects which may evolve naturally from this state:

- Make another 3D printer! (was one really enough?)

- Start 3D scanning your own data!

- Print alternative materials (i.e. pastes, foodstuffs)

- Make a filament recycler!

- Print with multiple materials!

- Use alternative modeling approaches (MineCraft)
Once you have access to a 3D printer (open source or not), there are usually some obvious things to do:

- Print all the things! (www.thingiverse.com)
- Student Designs
- Custom project parts
- Lab equipment (depending on what you want)

- Repair, tweak, upgrade, tinker
3D printers are much like 2D printers in some ways

- Find a support forum for your particular model/design

The RepRap RPG (for upper level undergraduates)
- Studio/Lab environment, Flipped Classroom
(Blogs and links are emailed out to students. Content changes too quickly for textbooks in this area)

- Experience Points (XP) for Grading
Students are encouraged to come up with their own methods for earning XP in addition to expected ones.
Unforseen mechanical problems become XP opportunities!

- May help circumvent the 'internship Catch-22' problem!
Wish List - What would facilitate this effort?
Open Source, Secure, XP management systems
(Useful for gamification more broadly)

Selected models (STLs) relevant to educational lessons, organized and available freely. (Educathingiverse?)

Competent Core
Other University
Department of Weirdology
It began here in my basement, but things rapidly grew out of control as the machines began printing themselves
Perhaps in time, similar groups will start to grow at other universities

(not just buying printers, using them, throwing them away when they stop working)

How will we train students to make better printers if they can't make and use the ones we have now!?
There was a bit of confusion
Pronterface evolution
Other Local Projects

Education and AM - Several elements
-Education of AM processes
-Education in the use of AM & Design for X
-Programs which train engineers who will improve the state of the art (making printers)
- Repositories of designs which are useful generally, or useful for educational purposes
Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF)
Using a paste extruder to print pastes (alumina and glass-bearing)

Print (and pole) magnetic rubbers

Comparing infill structures to resulting part strength using several algorithms
Rather than simply asserting that AM can facilitate student efforts, we would like to describe some examples of this.
-Converting and Printing AFM Data

- Modification of existing electronics to add features

- Incorporation of other platforms for design purposes (MineCraft)

- Exploration of traditional scientific methods

Given AFM data (a matrix of height values) can we:

- Develop a method to generate a solid body?
- Make this solid body manifold?
- 3D print the final result?
Sure can! Daniel Clotheaux did this in 2011.
Choice of electronics can be key:

RAMPS is designed to accomodate a second extruder driver, but is not typically operated in this mode.

With a little bit of extra effort, any open source system can extrude at least two materials, perhaps more!
Minecraft for Design?

Already printable!

Minecraft provides a voxel-based world which is already designed to describe multiple materials!

Might this not be a useful tool in the future, given its ubiquity and low cost?

Students at PSU have been working to familiarize themselves with the use of this approach
Strength testing is not new, but what has not been fully explored are the routes to optimization for everyone using open source 3D printing systems.
What infill density gives the best strength/weight? What infill algorithm optimizses this? We need to learn these things. Perhaps the best way is through simple destructive testing using traditional approaches.
Trends, frontiers, and opportunities in software, hardware, and design.
Direct Metal Laser 'Sintering' DMLS
aka Selective Laser Melting
aka Powder Bed Fusion
Our students are exploring this.
The unused extruder motor can be modified for other purposes.
Here, a student modified it to actuate a camera after every layer.
Sometimes we like to print materials other than thermoplastics. A wide variety of materials are available as pastes which can be printed using a suitably modified extruder, either with pressure or mechanical force.
Mechanical Paste Extruder
Pressure-driven Paste Extruder
You are here
Brief Summary of Interests:
By Winter of 2010,
the kit I had purchased was already 'tribbling'
AM in the (Re)Design Process
Digital Design (CAD, STL, etc)
Physical Model
or Prototype
Design Software / CAD
Visual & Haptic Feedback
3D Printing
3D Scanning
There are several free and/or open source options for all steps!
("Open Source FDM")
If you have any intention of:

-performing basic research (varying process parameters)

-developing new methods or approaches for AM

-operating a 3D printer without significant service contracts (which could one day dissolve, leaving you hanging)

-minimizing the premium you pay on feedstock materials

You might want to consider an open source system.
How much IP do you really need?
How much can you give away?
-Nokia Cell Phone Case designs (and phone specs) provided by Nokia
- Engages makers and draws more attention to the product
Open source powder bed systems are not particularly common, though some exist
(see PWDR, SLS Wax RepRap)
Open Source forms of this approach have been applied to:
-Thermoplastic materials
This exemplifies the 'custom add-on' appproach, enabling users to modify some aspect of a product
Places to find or share designs:

Just as you might want to use some service other than iTunes, you might want to find files from somewhere other than Thingiverse.com

Other options:
http://www.yeggi.com (still hosts thingiverse files)
AND MORE! Search "Thingiverse Alternative"
(or make your own!)

Nokia managed to capture the attention of the maker movement when they suggested that people should print their own phone cases.
Might it not cost more than it is worth?
(Lawyers love it, Engineers often hate it)

Open Source business models are generally service-based rather than IP-based. ("Pay us to help enable you", rather than "Pay up or else!")

In a forum, your lead users become your tech support, and can become skilled volunteers troubleshooting 'in the trenches'. Your own tech support then need only search your own forums for solutions to problems of big clients (who want direct support)

Development can occur without funding! (But you don't OWN any of it...)
Reverse Engineering Reminders:

Any design you have can be CT-scanned and regenerated as a printable file. If there's no fancy internals, you only need a cell phone w/ camera to do the same.

Anything you release is clonable. Keys alone are not secure (though perhaps this is not news)

DRM of files is almost sure to fail.

Fail faster, succeed sooner.
Quick reminders about AM:
- The "Law of the Instrument" still applies!

- Well-suited for one-off or small volume manufacturing of custom and/or complex parts (typically of a single material)

-A developing area of interest (not mature, constantly changing)

-Design for Manufacture - STILL APPLIES!
A variety of OS/DIY SLA printers continue to be developed.

see www.BuildyourownSLA.com
Why set up your own manufacturing for an add-on when users can print their own?
Points to take away:
Open Source has extended from software to hardware, and provides many options for design software, scanning and repairing of point cloud mesh/STL files and

several open source options available for the operation of 3D printers (tool-path generation and control)

IP may not be as useful or valuable as it once was. Consider what sharing designs might do for you.

-(with metals in particular) Communication among Design & Manufacturing Engineers facilitates successes
Google Trends:
"Open Source"
From Wikipedia: In production and development, open source as a development model promotes a
universal access
via a
free license
to a product's
design or blueprint
, and universal redistribution of that design or blueprint, including subsequent improvements to it by anyone.

Open design is the development of physical products, machines and systems through use of publicly shared design information. Open design involves the making of both free and open-source software (FOSS) as well as open-source hardware. (Wikipedia)

This is very different from the dominant intellectual property paradigm!
Your Mission (second blog prompt):

Look around Thingiverse (and it's alternatives) for several things. I would like you each to find something you consider:

1- Artistic/Beautiful
2- Something useful
3- Something useless
4- Weird or bizaare
5- Something that you might want yourself
Full transcript