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The Indus Valley Civilization
Transcript of The Indus Valley Civilization
The Town Planning System of Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization) was city based. The excellent drainage and sanitation systems are remarkable.
The houses can be divided into two main types
Most of the houses had baths, wells and covered drains connected with street drains.
There was no stone built house in the Indus cities. Most of the houses were built of burnt bricks. But unburnt sun-dried bricks were also used.
There were underground drains for the streets. These drains were covered by stone slabs.
The house drains were connected with road drains.
THE GREAT BATH
There is an impressive building which was used as a public bath. The overall dimension of the Bath is 180 feet by 108 feet. The bathing pool is 39 feet by 23 feet with 8 feet depth. There is a device to fill and empty the water of the bathing pool. There are galleries and rooms on all sides of the bathing pool.
THE GREAT GRANARY
THE TOWN PLANNING
There is the ruin of a great granary at Harappa measuring 169 fit x 135 fit. Attached to the granary were two roomed tenements with a common courtyard. These tenements housed the workers or the slaves who thrashed the corn to be preserved in the granary.
ART AND JEWELLERY
ART AND JEWELLERY
The earliest recorded artistic expression of man in India comes from Mohenjodaro, the Harappan period.
It includes steatite seals impressed with diverse animals like the unicorn bull, the Brahmani bull, rhinoceros etc., earthenware jars painted with birds, and stylized flowers, leaves, and terracotta toys, animals and figurines and the occasional copper and stone sculpture. Jewellery in Indus Valley Civilization is amongst the most commonly found relics and artefacts of the Harappan society. The traditional art of India recommends a richness and profusion in the jewellery adorned by both men and women during that period. Ornaments made of gold, silver, copper, ivory, pottery and beads have been discovered in civilisations as ancient as the Harappa and Mohenjodaro.
This trade is reflected in the widespread distribution of exquisite beads and ornaments (78 Bangles, 79 Ornaments, 80 Tablet, 81 Necklace, 82 Ornaments, 84 Beads, 85 Veseels, 86 Ladle), metal tools and pottery that were produced by specialized artisans in the major towns and cities.
Cotton, lumber, grain, livestock and other food stuffs were probably the major commodities of this internal trade. A highly standardized system of weights was used to control trade and also probably for collecting taxes (21 Weights).
The Indus Valley people had a primitive religious system. The main goddess was a mother goddess representing fertility, they also worshiped animals. On a seal their is a figure sitting in a yoga-like position and is thought to be an early representation of a Hindu god. Some Indus valley seals show swastikas, swastikas were used in the Hindu Religion. Swastikas were sacred symbol for good luck. The Hindu religion was probably based off of the Indus Valley.
Harappans were the first to grow cotton, spin it into thread, and then wove it into cloth.
The cotton cloth was then dyed bright colors.
The women wore a short skirt.
It was held at the waist with a girdle.
The women also had huge headdresses
The men had a trimmed beard and shaven upper lip.
Men wore a light robe and left the right shoulder bare.
Women wore lipstick
There is evidence of the cultivation of wheat, barley, peas, mustard, cotton and rice. Horse bones have also been discovered at Surkotda, indicating the usage of the animal. The main diet consisted of wheat, barley and milk products and fruits, vegetables, fish and meat were also consumed. The discovery of various equipments made of bronze and copper indicate metal work as their major profession of the people living in the cities. Other occupations were spinning, pottery and weaving. Further, the discovery of several seals made of clay gives more information of the importance of the domestic animals in the Harappan society. The site of granaries near Indus River, where the civilisation flourished was an important feature
THE INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
ARYA,ISHA,NIVA ,SUHANI & VAIDEHI