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Transcript of TUNDRA
1.Extremely cold climate
2.Low biotic diversity
3.Simple vegetation structure
4.Limitation of drainage
6.Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material
*One of most extreme ecosystems on earth
*Winters are long, dark, and harsh
*Summers are short and freezing
*Located all over the world including
*Alaska, Northern Canada, edges of Greenland, Northern Scandinavia, northern Siberia and Russia
*3 million square miles long and covers 20% of earth's surface
*Arctic voles and ice worms eat Arctic Moss
*It grows underwater therefore it's protected from the drying winds and cold dry air of the frozen tundra
*Muskox, Caribou, Arctic hare, and lemmings
*It gros close to the ground to avoid the cold winds, and has adapted to the permafrost by growin short roots
*Polar Bear and Snowy Owl
*Low growing o protect from harsh cold enviroment and silky hairs to help keep warm
Greenland, Russia, and sometimes migrate to China, Texas and Georgia
*They eat lemmings, hare, small birds and eggs
*They hunt during the day and there feathers fit together right so they can fly w/o sound
* Canada, Russia, Greenland, Iceland Scandinavia, Svalbard, and Alaska.
*They eat birds, lemmings, and Tundra voles
*They use rocky cliffs for dens and in the summer camouflage by turning brown
*Northern areas of
Canada, Alaska, Russia and Norway, various parts of Greenland.
*Seals, Walruses, Whales
*In the winter they huddle together and have thick feathers to keep warm
*Northern Canada, Greenland, Arctic areas, Alaska and Ellesmere Islands.
*They eat willow shoots, lichens, grasses
*They have thick fur that protect them from the harsh winter weather
*Canada, Russia, Greenland, Finland, Norway, Alaska
*They eat willow leaves including willow
leaves, moss, and lichens
*Grow soft antlers in the summer which help them release heat by the end of winter they harden nd are used to fight
*Found around the Arctic Circle, from Alaska to Siberia
*They eat leaves, shoots, grasses, sedges, roots, grubs, larva and bulbs
*Their incisors grow continuously allowing them to exist on much tougher forage
*Dominant 8% of the earth's surface
*The algae provides fungus with nourishment
*It grows on the ground and below water to protect itself from the harsh winds
*Underwater in the Tundra
*Feeds itself through sunlight and carbon dioxie
*Water is lost through the leaf surface, so small leaves help the plants retain moisture.
*In the arctic and northern regions around th world
*The algae has clorophyll which can make food
*The spongy threads of lichens support and protect
The average winter temperature is -30 degrees
The tundra is permanently covered by a layer of frozen soil, known as permafrost
The tundra has 17,000 different kinds of plants
Less that 4 million people live in the tundra, some being nomads so the population number is always changing
Tundra is also called barren land
An increase in oil and gas lead to global warming - causing permafrost to melt the Tundra ecosystems to collapse
Air pollution poisons lichen, which feeds many animals
Invasive species push aside native vegetation and reduce diversity of plant cover
Ozone depletion at the North and South Poles means stronger ultraviolet rays that will harm the tundra.
Oil spills can kill wildlife and significantly damage tundra ecosystems.
Why are polar regions dry?
Because its too cold for any water to evaporate and precipitate back down to earth