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Maria Rebolledo

on 19 September 2014

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Transcript of TUNDRA

Arctic Tundra
1.Extremely cold climate
2.Low biotic diversity
3.Simple vegetation structure
4.Limitation of drainage
5.Little Precipitation
6.Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material
7.Treeless planes

Food Web
Primary Consumers
Secondary Consumers
*One of most extreme ecosystems on earth
*Winters are long, dark, and harsh
*Summers are short and freezing
*Located all over the world including
*Alaska, Northern Canada, edges of Greenland, Northern Scandinavia, northern Siberia and Russia
*3 million square miles long and covers 20% of earth's surface
Arctic Moss
*Arctic voles and ice worms eat Arctic Moss
*It grows underwater therefore it's protected from the drying winds and cold dry air of the frozen tundra
Arctic Willow
*Muskox, Caribou, Arctic hare, and lemmings
*It gros close to the ground to avoid the cold winds, and has adapted to the permafrost by growin short roots
*Polar Bear and Snowy Owl
*Low growing o protect from harsh cold enviroment and silky hairs to help keep warm
Snowy Owl
*Alaska, Canada,
Greenland, Russia, and sometimes migrate to China, Texas and Georgia
*They eat lemmings, hare, small birds and eggs
*They hunt during the day and there feathers fit together right so they can fly w/o sound

Arctic Fox
* Canada, Russia, Greenland, Iceland Scandinavia, Svalbard, and Alaska.
*They eat birds, lemmings, and Tundra voles
*They use rocky cliffs for dens and in the summer camouflage by turning brown

Polar Bear
*Northern areas of
Canada, Alaska, Russia and Norway, various parts of Greenland.
*Seals, Walruses, Whales
*In the winter they huddle together and have thick feathers to keep warm
*Northern Canada, Greenland, Arctic areas, Alaska and Ellesmere Islands.
*They eat willow shoots, lichens, grasses
and shrubs.
*They have thick fur that protect them from the harsh winter weather
*Canada, Russia, Greenland, Finland, Norway, Alaska
and Sweden
*They eat willow leaves including willow
leaves, moss, and lichens
*Grow soft antlers in the summer which help them release heat by the end of winter they harden nd are used to fight
*Found around the Arctic Circle, from Alaska to Siberia
*They eat leaves, shoots, grasses, sedges, roots, grubs, larva and bulbs
*Their incisors grow continuously allowing them to exist on much tougher forage
Arctic Willow
Polar Bear
Arctic Moss
Snowy Owl
Arctic Fox
Trophic Pyramids
Folios Lichen
*Dominant 8% of the earth's surface
*The algae provides fungus with nourishment
*It grows on the ground and below water to protect itself from the harsh winds

Arctic Moss
*Underwater in the Tundra
*Feeds itself through sunlight and carbon dioxie
*Water is lost through the leaf surface, so small leaves help the plants retain moisture.
Caribou Moss
*In the arctic and northern regions around th world
*The algae has clorophyll which can make food
*The spongy threads of lichens support and protect

Arctic Moss
Arctic Willow
Polar Bear
Arctic Fox
Snowy Owl
Fun Facts
The average winter temperature is -30 degrees
The tundra is permanently covered by a layer of frozen soil, known as permafrost
The tundra has 17,000 different kinds of plants
Less that 4 million people live in the tundra, some being nomads so the population number is always changing
Tundra is also called barren land
Threats/Environmental Problems
An increase in oil and gas lead to global warming - causing permafrost to melt the Tundra ecosystems to collapse
Air pollution poisons lichen, which feeds many animals
Invasive species push aside native vegetation and reduce diversity of plant cover
Ozone depletion at the North and South Poles means stronger ultraviolet rays that will harm the tundra.
Oil spills can kill wildlife and significantly damage tundra ecosystems.
The End
Why are polar regions dry?

Because its too cold for any water to evaporate and precipitate back down to earth
Full transcript