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Goverment Unit II: Origins of American Government

Greco- Roman, Important Documents, Enlightenment thinkers
by

Mistah Frank

on 16 October 2017

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Transcript of Goverment Unit II: Origins of American Government

Unit II

Origins of American Government

Democracy was
originally created
in 500 BC~ in
Ancient Athens.

DO: SWBAT analyze traits from Ancient democracies and evaluate how they forerunners to American democracy
IA: Besides America, where have other examples of Democratic government existed in history?
Pericles
Demokratia
Demos + Kratos
People Power
At the time, all citizens would
meet in Athens and decide
public policy
.
Reason it worked:
Small Population
Lasted a total of:
200 years

508 BC: Rome
Republic was formed.
People elect
Representatives
to
Run the Government
Greco-Roman systems of govt promote
the "
Consent of the Governed
.
"
-The government only operates with the permission of the people.
DO: SWBAT analyze the extent to which the Magna Carta, influenced our Govt
IA: Explain how the United States'
Govt is Greco-Roman in its roots.
Magna Carta
:
"Great Charter" 1215
First Time Kings Power is
Limited
Establishes
Trial by Jury

Established Due Process
Petition of Right
: 1628
-Further Limited Kings Power
- Established
Rule of Law
No One is Above the Law!
English Bill of Rights
1680
- No excessive bail
- No
cruel/unusual punishment
- Right to petition the government
Stop and Jot: Ways to Cite- Which of the following is the correct way to cite (exit slip/ essay or otherwise)

“(38) In future no official can place a man on trial without producing credible eye witnesses.”

1) In the Magna Carta it is written, “(38) In future no official can place a man on trial without producing credible eye witnesses.”
2) In the Magna Carta it says “…no official can place a man on trial without… eye witnesses”
3) In the Magna Carta it says that nobody can put another person on trial without key eye witnesses.

DO: SWBAT examine events leading up to the Declaration of Independence
IA: When is enough enough? (Provide an example)
Early 1700s- Relations between the colonies
Great Britain were on good terms.
However, by the mid-point of the century
G.B. began to make changes in their colonies
to address certain problems and concerns.
Britain's Problems
-Native American uprisings
-Keeping peace in colonies
-paying war debts from French & Indian war
-maintaining power over the colonies
Using the stations around the room complete the
worksheet that Mr. Frank is currently handing out.
Exit Slip: Do you think the American Revolution
was inevitable? Why/Why Not?
DO: SWBAT Compare sources to determine why the colonists were so upset about the Stamp Act
IA: Explain the following quote
“We are only as strong as we are united, as weak as we are divided.”
-Dumbledore-
With the new laws and taxes being imposed
by King George III of G.B. the colonists started
to
unite
to add weight to their complaints.
Benjamin Franklin
is going to attempt to get the colonies to unite under the Albany Plan of Union. The Albany Plan of Union was
rejected
by both
England and the colonists.
-Annual Congress of delegates (representatives)
from each of the 13 colonies.
-Precursor to future attempts of self-gov't
Even though Franklin's plan of union failed, it laid the groundwork for future unity within the colonies. The first successful union being the
Stamp Act Congress
created in 1765.
-1754
Benny Franks
On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress
adopted the Declaration of Independence.
Exit Slip: On a post it, summarize today's lesson for
our absent student(s).
DO: SWBAT create a claim evaluating why the Articles of Confederation was an ineffective form of government
IA: What were key traits that the founding fathers 'stole' from the Enlightenment thinker?
IA: In your own words, explain what
'taxation without representation' means.
- During the
American Revolution
, the founding fathers needed to establish a system to
govern the newly created nation.
They decided upon the
Articles of Confederation
.
It established an 'alliance of states' where each state
kept its own sovereignty, freedom and independence.
All 13 states ratified, or approved, the A of C by 1781.
Govt under the A of C
- Unicameral Legislative
- No executive branch
- No judicial branch
-Fearful of creating a system of govt like that of G.B.
the govt under the Articles were purposely
limited
.
Complete the two worksheets with a partner. You will have 10-12 minutes to work before the class reconvenes.
Exit Slip: Write down one problem that you can predict occurring because of the weaknesses of the
A of C
DO: SWBAT create a claim determining how compromises enabled the founding fathers to create the Constitution
IA: Document A
Responding to the weaknesses of the A of C, delegates met in Philly to discuss
revisions
to the A of C. They would end up creating an entirely new govt. These delegates would later be known as
Framers
of the Constitution.
The Framers of the Constitution
argued over many issues
Virginia Plan
New Jersey Plan
- Bicameral Legislative
- Representation based
on state population
- Unicameral Legislative
- Representation equal regardless of size of state
Compromise
Great Compromise
-Delegates agreed on a bicameral Congress,
one part with equal representation for States (
Senate
), and the other with representation based on the States’ populations (
House of Representatives
).

3/5 Compromise
The Framers decided to count a slave as three-fifths of a person when determining the population of a State
Exit Slip: When we talked about the basic concepts of Democracy we said that the most crucial concept was Compromise. Based on what we talked about today; do you believe this to be true? Why or Why not? Use evidence to support your claim.
Work with a partner and complete the worksheet.
DO: SWBAT analyze Federalist 51 to evaluate Madison’s purpose
IA: What were some of the compromises of the Constitution?
After the Constitution was finished the only thing left was to do was ratify it. Those who wanted to ratify it was known as
Federalists,
those who didn't were known as
Anti-Federalists
.
Federalists (Pro)
- Said the Articles were too weak
- Strong gov't could solve problems
- Separation of Powers could prevent abuse
Led by Alexander Hamilton
Anti-Federalists (Anti)
-President could become too powerful
- Congress could become too powerful
- Lacked a Bill of Rights
Led by Thomas Jefferson
In an attempt to drive up support for the Constitution
Hamilton, Jay and Madison (under fake names) wrote the
Federalists Papers
. They were printed and distributed across the country.
Finally the Constitution was ratified in 1788, but not before the addition of the first ten amendments or
Bill of Rights
to protect the liberties of citizens.
Exit Slip: What was Madison's overall purpose in Federalist 51?

A 5/5 will include
Claim backed with evidence
Coherent Logic and Syntax
Complete worksheet with a partner.
In 1789, the Constitution was put into effect.
Washington chosen as first President.
NYC chosen as first capital.
DO: SWBAT analyze the Constitution to determine the overall purpose of the document

IA: What the is the point of an
introduction paragraph of an essay?
The Constitution is a fairly brief document that outlines the basic principles upon which government in the United States was built.

Constitution is split into 3 parts;
Preamble
,
Articles
and
Amendments
.

The introduction of the Constitution;
states its
purpose
.
1.
Legislative
2.
Executive
3.
Judicial

4. State Relations
5. Amendments
6. Supremacy Clause
7. Ratification

There are seven
Articles
; each
outlining a different characteristic
of the Gov't
Lazy
Elephants
Jumps
Slowly
And
Sleep
Regularly
-Official changes
They first ten were adopted with Constitution
In 225 years there have only been 17 changes
(two of which cancel each other out)
1-10: Bill of Rights
13, 14, 15: Civil War Amendments
18 & 21: Prohibition Amendments
19 & 26: Voting Amendments
22: Presidential Term Limits
Exit Slip: Think about the amount of Amendments we have. What does this say about the founding fathers?
DO: SWBAT draw conclusions about the founding fathers after examining the Amendments to the Constitution

IA: Lets review yesterday's Exit Slip:
Cite as least three examples of how the Constitution fixed problems that around under the Articles.


Although there have only been 27 amendments; there have been numerous
informal
amendments.
Informal
amendment is the process
by which over time many changes
have been made in the Constitution
which has not involved any changes
in its written word.

The informal amendment process can take place by:
(1) the passage of basic legislation by Congress;
(2) actions taken by the President;
(3) key decisions of the Supreme Court;
(4) the activities of political parties; and
(5) custom.

The Constitution provides for its own amending
—that is, for changes in its written words.

Exit Slip: If the framers had forgone adding Article V to the Constitution would that have affected its longevity?
DO: SWBAT analyze the six principles of the Constitution and their influence on our political system.
IA: Think about the first words of our Constitution "We the People". Why do you think the framers chose these words to start off the document?
Exit: Which of the principles is the most important to our system of Government and why?
Complete Gallery Walk.
Once completed begin matching worksheet on the back. Hand in once completed.
After Ancient Rome, all traces of
democracy disappeared from the world
until 1215 in
England
.
DO: SWBAT Compare sources to determine why the colonists were so upset about the Stamp Act?
IA: Why is it important to know the source of an article?
-After winning the
French-Indian War
in 1763, the British were in a lot of debt. They tried to raise money by taxing the American colonists.
Boston-Gazette, October 7, 1765

My Dear Countrymen,

AWAKE! Awake, my Countrymen and defeat
those who want to enslave us. Do not be cowards. You were born in Britain, the Land of
Light, and you were raised in America, the
Land of Liberty. It is your duty to fight this tax.
Future generations will bless your efforts and
honor the memory of the saviors of their
country.

I urge you to tell your representatives that you
do not support this terrible and burdensome
law. Let them know what you think. They
should act as guardians of the liberty of their
country.

I look forward to congratulating you on
delivering us from the enemies of truth and
liberty.

}
Predictions
1. Why were colonists upset about the Stamp Act?
2. Was the Stamp Act an unreasonable and unfair tax?
3. Were the colonists treated like slaves?
4. Were the British violating colonists’ rights?
5. How were the colonists behaving in response to the Stamp Act?
6. Some historians have argued that the American Revolution
happened because a few rich leaders riled up all the poor people.
Do these documents provide evidence for argument? Is that
evidence believable?
DO: SWBAT create predictions based on their assigned philosopher
IA: Who inspires you? What are the qualities that these inspirational people share?
Starting in the 1600s, European philosophers began debating the question of who should govern a nation. As the absolute rule of kings weakened,
Enlightenment
philosophers argued for different forms of democracy.
Thomas Hobbes
English
"
Leviathan
"


The title alludes to the theory that society needs a strong central government because of man's naturally
evil nature.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Swiss
"
Social

Contract
"
Man is born free but he is everywhere in chains
John Locke
English
"Two Treatises of Government"
- Natural Rights
Baron de Montesquieu
French
"
Spirit of the Laws
"
Separation of Power in Government
Social Contract
Prompt 1: The best form of government is a representative democracy.
Prompt 2: Only the president should have the power to declare war.
Prompt 3: A good way to make laws is for all the people to directly vote on them
Prompt 4: Religion should be a part of the government.
Prompt 5: The government should have the authority to confiscate a person’s property for the public good
Prompt 6: Which of these philosophers had the most lasting impact on the American political system?
Task: In your clusters, read through the
different parts of the Articles of Confederation
while answering the guided reading questions.
12 Minutes.
Why was the Articles intentionally made this way?

What were the founding fathers hoping to prevent? In context, were the intentionally weaknesses a good idea? Why or Why not?

Did the Articles provide a good basis for government?
DO:
Constitution
Limited Govt
Checks and Balances
Federalism
Separation of Powers
Popular Sovereignty
Judicial Review
To what extent should the federal government be involved in economic issues?
Position A: The federal government's powers over taxation as well as international and interstate trade allow significant latitude in directing economic policy.

Position B: The federal government should only act to remedy unfavorable economic conditions for business activity.
Should voter ballot initiatives be allowed to overturn laws passed by legislative bodies?
Position A: Yes; ballot initiatives allow voters to directly participate in their government.
Position B: No; voters already express their views through election of public officials.
Once Congress declares war and the President assumes the role of Commander-in-Chief who decides how the war ends?
Position A: Congress, the policy making branch which represents the people, should determine peace terms.
Position B: The President as Commander-in-Chief is in the best position to determine appropriate actions.
“We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the
Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”
Exit Slip: What was the overall purpose of the Constitution? What were the founding fathers trying to accomplish with this document?

A 5/5 response will include...
Evidence from text
Coherent Logic and Syntax
Amendments
Elastic Clause- granting Congress the power to pass all laws necessary and proper
DO: SWBAT analyze the court case Marbury vs. Madison to evaluate to what extent it supports the doctrine of checks and balances
(EQ Connection #_____)
IA: Matching Activity

Checks & Balances- the act of one branch of the government checking the others so ensure that one does not gain too much power.
John Adams
Federalist

2nd
3rd
Thomas Jefferson
Anti-Federalist/ Democratic- Republican

Examples?
- Veto
- Overriding a Veto
-Impeachment
-Judicial Review
Marbury vs. Madison
Students will have 20 minutes to SILENTLY read through and complete the Court Case analysis.

Exit Slip
To what extent does the Marbury case support the doctrine of checks and balances?
Marbury vs. Madison
was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court formed the basis for the exercise of
judicial review
the act of determining whether something is
Unconstitutional
(against the Constitution)
TASK:
1. Read through your article with your group
2. Complete Graphic Organizer to collect your thoughts
3. Discuss and challenge with group members

Explain why the name ‘Articles of Confederation” was an apt title for their government’s outline?
Ink Pair Share
Following the foundation of England's first colony,
Jamestown
, the English would create 13 colonies in America, all with different religions, objectives, geographies and motives.
1. Consent of the Governed
2. Natural Rights
3. Separation of Powers
4. Social Contract
Ink Pair Share

Explain why the name "Articles of Confederation" was an apt title for their government's outline.
What does that sound like?
C& B
3 Branches
What does that sound like?
Declaration of Independence
Hamilton and a strong Federal Government
People need to submit to the laws of a nation
I should see...groups collaborating and students annotating their texts
I should hear...groups discussing their philosopher
... accountable talk and discussion about prompts
Teacher will be grading you based on...
group discussion
full class discussion
graphic organizer completion

3 minutes per prompt
during discussion

Teacher will not be an active member during discussion
SWBAT analyze key passages of the Constitution to evaluate its purpose
What the seven Articles of the Constitution?
The framers of the Constitution wrote the Constitution as a
blueprint
to a new form of government, effectively replacing the
Articles of Confederation
. The Constitution has
seven
Articles or parts that explain different parts of the government.
The first Article talked about the
Legislative
branch or
Congress
. Congress is split into two parts; the House of Representatives (
2 year terms
) and the Senate (
6 year terms
). The main job of the Legislative branch is
making bills
which can be laws if the President signs off on them.
The second Article discusses the
executive
branch which consists of the President of the United States or
POTUS
. The President’s main job is
signing off
on bills that Congress. President serve
4 year
terms.
The third Article discusses the third and final branch of the government, the
judicial
branch. The judicial branch consists of the
Supreme Court
and lower courts which
judges
laws and their fairness. Supreme Court justices do not have a term as they serve for
life
.
The
Fourth
Article talks about
state to state
relations and when the Federal government should get involved.
The
Fifth
Article explains how to make a
change
or amendment to the government.
What type of government is this?
Indirect Democracy (Representative Democracy)
What type of government is this?
Direct Democracy
*Arbitrary-
?
Students will be working in their groups. Two members will have abridged copies of the Magna Carta and two members will have abridged copies of the American Bill of Rights. Working together and using the documents. Students will have 10-12 minutes to complete the graphic organizer.
Silently Read for 7-8
DO: SWBAT apply the historical context skill to evaluate which of the Bill of Rights is the most crucial
IA: Why did the US abandon the Articles of Confederation and shift to the Constitution?
The
Articles of Confederation
, the first government of the United States was created and used during the
American Revolution
(1777). However, in the years following the war it proved to problematic and a new government, the
Constitution
, was created.
The Constitution was designed to be a
stronger
government than the Articles of Confederation.

However, there were some (the
Anti-Federalists
) who voiced opposition to a strong government.
In order to quell the fears of the Anti-Federalists, a Compromise was struck.

Immediately after the Constitution was
ratified
, or approved, ten
amendments
(changes) were added.

These first ten amendments are called the
Bill of Rights.
Amendment I
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment II
A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment III
No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Amendment IV
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Amendment V
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Amendment VI
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

Amendment VII
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Amendment VIII
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment IX
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment X
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
Amendment I
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment II
A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment III
No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Amendment IV
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Amendment V
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Amendment VI
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

Amendment VII
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Amendment VIII
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment IX
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment X
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
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