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Canadian History: Conferderation

Reasons for and challenges of...

John Panetta

on 16 February 2015

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Transcript of Canadian History: Conferderation

Confederation and the Creation of Canada
Fathers of Confederation

1. Economic Recession
end of the Reciprocity Treaty with the U.S.A.
looked to the other colonies as possible trading partners
- establishment of inter-colonial trade

There are 3 reasons why the B.N.A colonies decide to form a country?
Antoine-Aime Dorion
leader of the Parti Rouge
George Brown
Leader of the clear Grits
2. Political Deadlock
United Canada was divided into 3 competing parties
John A. MacDonald
Leader of the Conservatives
the Clear Grits and The Parti Rouge of Canada would not cooperate
the result was

- laws could not be passed
Ulysses S. Grant
Fear of American Expansion
American “manifest destiny” threatens the North West Territories
no B.N.A colony could defend against this aggression alone
Confederation took 3 years to achieve
it was not a sudden event
it was a democratic process
The Myth of Confederation
It was suddenly imposed on people

3 key conferences were held to negotiate the terms of confederation
Charlottetown Conference (1864)
Quebec Conference (1864)
London Conference (1867)
Official Power & Countervailing Power
After 3 years of debate only 3 colonies agree to confederate
United Province of Canada
New Brunswick
Nova Scotia
The British North America Act (1867) is the law that created Canada
the law comes into force on July 1, 1867
the country will be composed of 4 provinces
New Brunswick
Nova Scotia
The British North America Act (1867) is (was?) the constitution for Canada

the rules for how Canada operates
renamed the Constitution Act (1982)

Parliamentary Government
also known as Responsible Government
Constitutional Monarchy
the King or Queen is the symbolic head of state
represented by the Governor General

Federal System of Government
What type of Country did the BNA Act (1867) establish?

Federal Government
a central government
responsible for national issues

Provincial Governments
(today there are 10)
regional governments
responsible for local issues
Canadians are represented by two levels of government
Over time the Federal Government has centralized powers
This has created problems in Federal/Provincial relations

Feds have moved into provincial jurisdiction
Provinces resent the interference
The Great War
The Great Depression
World War II
There are valid explanations for the development of a strong federal government
The War Measures Act:
Feds take control of the economy
Enact Labour laws
Enact direct taxation
- Income Tax
Enact Conscription Law
Feds establish programs for social welfare
Establish the framework for medicare
Establish the framework for welfare
The War Measures Act
Feds take control of the economy
Feds take control of mass communication
Suspension of civil liberties
Full transcript