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The History of Oil Spills

A coverage of containable to the most chaotic oil spills
by

Trang Nguyen

on 21 March 2011

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Transcript of The History of Oil Spills

History of
Oil Spills Take a journey and learn about the most
containable oil spills to the most chaotic. Small oil spill in Lake Garda from cars parked on the streets. Diastrous Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill The most recent oil spill may be the Deepwater Horizion event but it is not the only one. By Trang Nguyen
& Jessica Huynh VS What Happened - April 22, 2010
- Caused by explosion on the Deepwater
Horizon offshore oil platform near the
Mississippi River delta
- Oil spill covered 29,958 square miles How Was It Handled Roughly 285,200, 000 gallons spilled. 5 million of barrels of oil were released on the Macondo
and 4.2 million barrels poured in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico - BP capped the well stopping the flow of oil on July 15
- Took three months to stem the flow of oil
- BP’s engineers sought to cut off the leak by using the ROVs to activate the blowout preventer
- On May 7, 2010, BP put a steel-containment dome over the worst of the leaks and planned to funnel the oil through a pipe. Procedure failed due to gas hydrates clogging the opening.
- On May 17, 2010, robots inserted a four-inch diameter Riser Insertion Tube Tool into the Horizon’s riser between the well and the broken end of the riser on the seafloor in 5000 feet of water.
- Controlled burns and chemical dispersants were all used to help remove the oil. Outcome - Oil came ashore in Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida
- 32 National Wildlife Refugees were potentially affected by the spill
- Potential environmental impacts of chemicals known as dispersants used to dissipate the oil slick
- Fishing was banned
- Large oil plumes in deep waters were recorded and scientists feared that this oil spill affected the ecology far below the surface
- Of the 1746 birds collected, 997 died while 749 were captured alive.
- Of the 528 sea turtles collected, 400 died while 128 survived
- Of the 51 mammals collected in the spill zone, 47 died.
- More animals are suspected to be dead but many sunk in the open ocean or been eaten by scavengers. 2010 Deepwater H
O
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N Oil Spill 1978 1989 1993 2007 Amoco Cadiz Oil Spill Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Barge Bouchard 155 Oil Spill San Francisco Bay Oil Spill 58,000 What Happened How Was It Handled Outcome - March 24, 1989
- Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The tanker was traveling outside the normal shipping lanes in an attempt to avoid ice.
- Spilled 10.8 million gallons of oil Largest oil spill in history before Deepwater Horizon - Exxon paid $2.5 billion for cleanup effort and $1.1 billion in other settlements.
- The Alyeska Pipeline Service Company immediately sent a tug to the site to assist in stabilizing the vessel.
- The primary means of open water oil recovery was with skimmers.
- Sorbents were used to recover oil in cases where mechanical means were less practical. The drawback to sorbents was that they were labor intensive and generated additional solid waste.
- Cleanup operations were scheduled around specific activities such as seal haulout activity, seal pupping, eagle nesting, fish spawning, fishing seasons, and other significant events as much as possible. - Impacted more than 1,100 miles of non-continuous Alaskan coastline
- The Exxon Valdez quickly gave rise to industry reforms that included double hull tankers, BRM training, VTS improvements, owner liability and oil spill response requirement.
- Sport fishing suffered a loss of nearly $580 million.
375,000 – 435,000 birds were killed
- Great decrease in residents in Alaska and non-residents (tourists) who came to visit also decreased. The costs were replacing birds and mammals totaled up to almost $300,000. Outcome What Happened How Was It Handled - August 10, 1993
- Three ships collided in Tampa Bay, Florida: Barge Bouchard 155, freighter Balsa 37, and barge Ocean 255
- Spilled 336,000 gallons of No. 6 fuel oil into Tampa Bay - The Ocean 255 barge fire was extinguished
- Lightering operations were underway immediately on the
- Balsa 37 was grounded outside the shipping channel to prevent it from capsizing
- Cleanup crews focused on manually removing the band of surface oil high on the beach and the thick oil that had been deposited around some mangrove islands
- Pompoms were strung along the surface zone to collect any oil refloated during the surf washing - Tarmats formed when sediment was mixed with oil along shallow flats and cleanup is still ongoing
- 30 miles of residential seawalls were oiled
- Seawalls, jetties, walkways, and riprap were all cleaned - November 7, 2007
- South Korea-bound Container ship struck the Bay Bridge
- Spilled 58,000 gallons of bunker fuel into San Francisco Bay What Happened - Dozens of dead and injured seabirds
- Affected fishing season for the San Francisco
fishing industry
- Affected the longfin smelt How Was It Handled - 200 workers corralled the spill and clean soiled birds on Friday
- 18,00 feet of collection booms skimmed the bay and soaked up oil
- Twenty teams of wildlife experts worked on collecting and cleaning oil-stained animals Outcome 58,000 gallons of oil What Happened How Was It Handled Outcome - March 16, 1978
- The Amoco Cadiz encountered stormy weather and ran aground off the coast of Brittany, France
- Spilled 68.7 million gallons of oil - At sea, precipitating agents and dispersants as well as the rotation of winds were used to prevent the slicks from drifting to the Channel Islands
- Sill liquid oil were pumped away and then oiled wastes were removed
- Oiled wastes were neutralized during quicklime
- Sea fishing was banned until end of April - New marine pollution response plan
- Traffic separate scheme ensured that vessels transporting hazardous materials stay 50 km from the coast
- Powerful high sea tug, Abeille Flandre, was placed on permanent standby
- Specialized technical center
- Polluted about 200 miles of Brittany’s coastline
- Bird mortality was in the 20,000 range (highest rates recorded along European coast)
- Limpets, sea urchins, and clams also had high mortality
- 6400 oysters were destroyed 68.7 millions of oil •Deepwater Oil Spill was caused by an explosion compared to Amoco Cadiz which
was caused by the unfavorable weather
•Dispersants were both used here although it was more effected for Amoco Cadiz
•Amoco Cadiz was able to respond well and new plans were developed immediately
after the situation was handled •The death tolls of the animals Exxon Valdez Oil Spill killed does not compare to the possible amount from Deepwater Horizon
•Deepwater Horizon spilled 20 times more than Exxon Valdez Oil Spill did
•Deepwater Horizon reacted better than Exxon
•Three ships collided to cause the oil spill
•Actions was taken immediately and effectively and it was also easier to contain the oil spill from Barge Bouchard 155
•Long term effect on the environment caused by the Barge Bouchard 155 is on land while Deepwater may be on the ocean surface
•Deepwater did not respond as effectively as San Francisco
•Many more animals were affected due to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill
•Oil spill from Deepwater was much greater
Deepwater Horizon vs. Exxon Valdez David Pakman Works Cited "Amoco Cadiz Biggest Oil Spill." Black Tides. Cedre, n.d. Web. 21 Mar 2011. .

"Barge Bouchard 155." Incident News. Emergency Response Division, 10 AUG 1993. Web. 21 Mar 2011. .

Chea, Terence. "San Francisco Oil Spill Threatens Wildlife." National Geographic News. N.p., 09 NOV 2007. Web. 21 Mar 2011. .

Cleveland, Cutler. "Exxon Valdez oil spill."Encyclopedia of the Earth. N.p., 20 DEC 2010. Web. 21 Mar 2011. .

Cleveland, Cutler. "Deepwater Horizon oil spill."Encyclopedia of the Earth. N.p., 15 OCT 2010. Web. 21 Mar 2011. .

Hogue, Jennifer. "Exxon's Oil Spill." What is Crisis Management. N.p., 03 JAN 2011. Web. 21 Mar 2011. .

Marshall, Carolyn. "Oil Spill Spreads in San Francisco Bay." The New York Times. N.p., 10 NOV 2007. Web. 21 Mar 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/10/us/10spill.html

Michaels, Patricia A. . "Amoco Cadiz Oil Spill."Green Nature. N.p., 2009. Web. 21 Mar 2011. .

Nearing, Julie. "Farmington, CT." Localism. N.p., 03 JAN 2011. Web. 21 Mar 2011. .
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