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The Principal Ethical Teaching of Islam

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Marc Igmat

on 3 August 2014

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Transcript of The Principal Ethical Teaching of Islam

The Principal Ethical Teachings of Islam
The Sunnah & Hadith
DESCRIBE & EXPLAIN
Sunnah:
The practices, customs, and traditions of Muhammad. Found in the Hadith.
Muhammad addresses the Islamic way of life, in relation to friends, family and government.

Hadith:
Stories or sayings in regards to the Islamic way of life by Muhammad.
Impact on the everyday lives of people.
DISCUSS: Variations & Understanding of the Features
- Two major branches of Islam: Sunni (1.2 billion) and Shi'ah (200 million)

- Sunni:
Sunna: Draws upon the practice of the Prophet and his teachings.
Hadith: Abu Bakr (first Khalif). Different collection of books when compared to Shi'a.
'The Six Books'

- Shi'a:
Hadith: Rejected some companions of the Prophet Muhammad. E.g. Abu Bakr & Umar (First and second Khalifahs).
Belief that Ali was the first successor (Khalif) to Muhammad.
'The Four Books'
Sunnah: Ayatollah (high-ranking religious leader) considered as reflections of God on earth.

Ijma (Consensus)
DISCUSS: Variations & Understanding of the Features
There are different perspectives shared between the two denominations, Shi'a and Sunni regarding Ijma in Islamic Traditions.
Shia':
A judgement must be sought from a leading community leader (ayatollah)
Deemed the consensus as irrelevant
Notion of guidance and interpretation between Muslim scholars became a problem
Some do not recognise/acknowledge this law, this Ijma never reached a significant position
Based on obedience of a religious leader, Imam, or a descendant of Muhammad

Sunni:

From the Ummah, a judgement can be sough by those knowledgeable* in Islamic Law
"My Community will never agree upon an error"
Significance of Ijma reached a high level and position in Sunni Islam

The Qiyas (Analogy)
DESCRIBE & EXPLAIN
The Qiyas is the analogy drawn from the Hadith and Qur'an to provide answers to modern problems.
In regards to ethics, Qiyas is the reference to sacred texts about problems in society that are not actually laws,
such as bad morals
.
Some people do not follow Qiyas as the Qur'an is the sole guide for Muslims in their daily life.
Provides a guide to problems that have formed over time.
Flexiblility of the Shari'ah
(Islamic law)
by creating relations between things that are Haram and issues not yet mentioned in any sacred texts
DISCUSS: Variations & Understanding of the Features

Sunni:
Believe it is unaltered.
Believe every single letter of it.

Shi'a:
They do not believe that it was first compiled by Uthman ibn Affan.
The Shī‘ah believe that the Qur'an was gathered and compiled by Muhammad during his lifetime
Doubtful of its authenticity
DESCRIBE & EXPLAIN
Qur'an:
The Qur’an is the complete Book of guidance from Allah, sent down to Prophet Muhammad through the angel Jibril.
Main source of law in Islam, foundation of their ethical principles.
Only Islamic Miracle.

Direct personal relationship between Man and Allah.
Unaltered for the last fourteen hundred years.
It is also a testimony of the validity of the Islamic way of life for all times.
From the Qur'an, Muslims believe they can achieve happiness on Earth and peace in the afterlife.
The Qur'an is a living proof of the existence of Allah, the All Powerful.
DESCRIBE & EXPLAIN
Consensus, acceptance of a matter by a specified group of people
Judgements based on juridical principles from the Qur'an and the Sunnah
Variations of Ijma (Explicit, Silent, Absolute, Unknown Opposition)
(Significance)
Important decision indicates a consensus of the companions of the prophet
Judgement is regarded as being decisive giving importance to the teachings & life of the prophet
Provides modern development, further determining muslim ethics
Helped legitimize democracy and reform within Islamic communities (Distinct values)
DISCUSS: Variations & Understanding of the Features

Sunni
Seen as a fourth source of Islamic Law, including:
Qur'an
Hadith
Sunnah

Shi'a:
Completely rejects analogical reasons for Islamic law, as it is
more opinionated than fact
. Hence, multitude of opinions can cause disagreements.


Impact on the everyday lives of people.
The Qur'an
Conclusion
Significance

Paradise/Hell - Jannah/Jahannam
Impact:
Marriage - Men should support women
Education - Men should study
Appearance - Purity
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