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Biotech Key Terms and essential questions.

A list of terms used throughout the scope of this course.
by

Timothy Williams

on 9 January 2013

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Transcript of Biotech Key Terms and essential questions.

Working Drawings a) The set of plans from which a structure or object will be built. b) The vehicle by which designers graphically conveys the final design solution. Sketching An effective means of communication that utilizes freehand drawing. Project Notebooks Notebooks documenting an undertaking that is evidence of design process, research, and final implementation of the design solution. An undertaking that is usually large and encompasses planning, execution, and presentation to varying degrees as addressed in the scope. Precision The degree of refinement with which an operation is performed or a measurement stated. Portfolio A written record of the development of a project from inception to completion. Plagiarize Act of using another author’s work without giving proper credit; literary theft. Journal Daily record or collection of writings, sketches, and research that express the design process. Accuracy The degree of conformity of a measure to a standard or a true value. Key Terms Essential Questions Project Unit 1 What techniques are necessary to attain an uncontaminated DNA
sequence that can be compared to known data genetic bases by a
forensic scientists or a pathologist? How are DNA sequences compared to each other? How does bioinformatics and engineering compliment one another? Why is bioinformatics the future of biotechnology? Why is it important to know about the chemistry of DNA? What two methods can be used to determine if transformation was
successful? What are the ethical considerations regarding genetic engineering? What are the regulatory issues related to genetic engineering? What environmental conditions, both physical and biological,
must be considered during the scale up of an organism for
bioprocessing? What approaches are taken to isolate and purify pharmaceutical
compounds generated by the biopharma industry? You must make sure no foreign substances enter the testing site. They are compared by certain key sequences in them. Engineering and bioinformatics both make a product based on instructions given. The capability of making a product using dna is the future because it would assist in preventing disease. The chemistry of it is important because using it requires knowing what sequences code for. A change in appearance if that was submitted in the coding some ethical considerations are the idea of controlling genes of animals. If just about anyone can code these differences then there will be ways this is used immorally and there being superhumans running around. One must make sure the site is clean and the subject is behaving as expected. Micropipets make sure the correct amount of material of each kind enter the solution. Unit 2 Transformation The modification of a genome by the external application of DNA from a cell of different genotype. A large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order, required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's cells, tissues, and organs. Protecting the Crime Scene The collection of evidence and documentation of the location itself. Process Engineer The operator of a complex chemical or biological plant. Plasmid An autonomous self-replicating genetic particle is usually of circular double-stranded DNA. Pathogen Refers to a virus, bacterium, parasitic protozoan, or other microorganism that causes infectious disease by invading the body of an organism (e.g., animal, plant, etc.) known as the host. Microinjection Is a technique for introducing a solution of DNA into a cell using a fine microcapillary pipette. Good Manufacturing Practices Regulations that describe the methods, equipment, facilities, and controls required for producing human and veterinary products, medical devices, and processed foods. Genetic Engineering a) The selective, deliberate alteration of genes. b) The direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes. c) The technique of removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule in order to change the information it contains. A professional that analyzes and interprets DNA samples as well as other forms of evidence collected from a crime scene.
  Forensics Involves the collection, analysis, and interpretation of evidence to solve crimes; its purpose is to create doubt as to the testimony of the witness. Electroporation Double Helix DNA Replication DNA Fingerprinting DNA fingerprinting is an individual's unique sequence of DNA base pairs, determined by exposing a sample of the person's DNA to molecular probes. DNA Analysis The testing of DNA samples that exists on the evidence collected from a crime scene.
  CODIS Combined DNA index system. BLAST Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is a sequence comparison algorithm optimized for speed used to search sequence databases for optimal DNA sequence alignments. Bioreactor A container used for bioprocessing Bioprocessing Using organisms or biologically derived macromolecules to carry out enzymatic reactions or to manufacture products. Biopharmaceutical A therapeutic product created through the genetic manipulation of living things, including (but not limited to) proteins and monoclonalantibodies, peptides, and other molecules that are not chemically synthesized, along with gene therapies, cell therapies, and engineered tissues. The emission of visible light by living organisms such as the firefly and various fish, fungi, and bacteria.
  Bioinformatics a) Refers to the generation or creation, collection, storage (in databases), and efficient utilization of data or information from genomics, combinatorial chemistry, proteomics, and DNA sequencing research. b) Examples of the data or information that is manipulated and stored include gene sequences, biological activity or function, pharmacological activity, biological structure, molecular structure, protein-protein interactions, and gene expression products or amounts.
  Angstrom Amino Acid Unit 3 Values The principles, standards, or beliefs considered important and desirable by an individual. Trade-offs a) An exchange of one thing in return for another. b) Especially relinquishment of one benefit or advantage for another regarded as more desirable. Timeline A representation or exhibit of key events within a particular historical period, often consisting of illustrative visual material accompanied by written commentary and arranged chronologically. Stock Portfolio A collection of investments held by an individual or an institution which can be analyzed to determine gains and losses over time. Scale The scale of a map or enlarged or reduced timeline indicates the ratio between the distances on the line that correspond to the reality in number of years. The rules or habits of conduct with reference to standards of right and wrong. Milestone Market Industry Impact Genetic Engineering a) The selective, deliberate alteration of genes. b) The direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes. c) The technique of removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule in order to change the information it contains. Gene a) A unit of hereditary code. b) A natural unit of the hereditary material, which is the physical basis for the transmission of the characteristics of living organisms from one generation to another. Events Ethics Engineering Dilemma a) A choice between equally unpleasant courses of action. b) A situation that requires a choice between options that are or seem equally unfavorable or mutually exclusive.
  Biotechnical Engineering Applies fundamentals of engineering to meet the needs of the medical community, the field encompasses the three basic categories of medical, clinical, and bioengineering. The study of the ethical and moral implications of new biological discoveries and biomedical advances, as in the fields of genetic engineering and drug research. Protein Forensic Scientist A process utilized to introduce a foreign gene into the genome of an organism. The normal structural configuration of DNA consisting of two helices winding about the same axis. The process of making an identical copy of a section of duplex (double-stranded) DNA, using existing DNA as a template for the synthesis of new DNA strands. Bioluminescence A unit of length equal to one ten-thousandth of a micron (10-4 micron) or 10-10 of a meter with adenine a) The basic building block of proteins (or polypeptides). Containing a basic amino group, an acidic carboxyl (COOH) group and a side chain (R - of a number of different kinds) attached to an alpha carbon atom. b)The fundamental building blocks of a protein molecule. Morals An important event, as in a person's career, the history of a nation, or the advancement of knowledge in a field. A subset of the population considered interested in the buying of goods or services.
  a) Commercial production and sale of goods generally through a specific branch of manufacture and trade, such as biotechnical industry. b) The sector of an economy made up of manufacturing enterprises. The effect or impression of one thing on another. A significant occurrence or happening. a) A set of moral principles or values or the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group. b) The rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the conduct of the members of a profession or group. a) The profession of or work performed by an engineer. b) The knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences (biological and physical) gained by study, experience, and practice that are applied with judgment and creativity to develop ways to utilizes the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of humankind. Biomedical Engineering Bioethics Key terms The application of biological and engineering concepts to design materials and processes that directly measure, repair, improve, and extend living systems. Substrate A surface on which an organism grows or is attached. Chamber in the heart that receives blood from the atrium of the same side and pumps it into the arteries. Tricuspid Valve Controls blood flow from the right atrium into the right ventricle. T Wave The third wave of an ECG and it indicates ventricular repolarization.
  Syntharthroses No movement of joint A slender thread, rod, or catheter inserted into a tubular structure, such as a blood vessel, to provide support during or after anastomosis. Sinoatrial Node Half moon shaped valve that prevents blood from flowing back into the heart. Saddle Joint A biaxial synovial joint in which the double motion is affected by opposition of two surfaces as in the thumb. The probability of satisfactory operation of the product in a given environment over a specified time interval. The second wave of an ECG and it is associated with the depolarization of the ventricles. Pulse Product Liability Having a legal responsibility for the failure of a product. Pericardium Membranous sac surrounding the heart and major blood vessels connected to it. An electronic device that is surgically implanted into the patient’s heart and chest to regulate heartbeat. P Wave The first upward wave in an ECG which indicates the atrial depolarization. Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries or diseases. Nanotechnology Myocardial Infarction Result of permanent damage to an area of the heart muscle. Mitral Valve The valve that controls blood flow between the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart. Area of contact between bones. Hinge Joint A unilateral joint in which a broad, transversely cylindrical convexity on one bone fits into a corresponding concavity on the other, allowing motion of one plane only, as in the elbow. Gliding Joint A synovial joint in which the opposing surfaces are nearly planes and in which there is a slight motion, as in the metacarpal joints FDA Federal Drug Administration. Ethics a) A set of moral principles or values or the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group. b) The rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the conduct of the members of a profession or group. ECG Dilemma Diarthroses Free joint movement is possible Design Translation of a concept into a satisfactory, producible, salable form. Data Condylarthrosis : A joint, like that of the knee formed by a rounded surface at the extremity of the bone. Case Study A broad-based analysis of an engineering problem. Capillary The smallest of the body's blood vessels. Biomedical Engineering Applies fundamentals of engineering to meet the needs of the medical community, the field encompasses the three basic categories of medical, clinical, and bioengineering. Biocompatibilty The use of various materials to replace human components without adverse results. Bicuspid Valve Situated between the left atrium and the left ventricle. Ball and Socket Joint A multi-axial synovial joint in which a more or less extensive sphere on the head of one bone fits into a rounded cavity in the other bone, as in the hip joint. The head and thorax regions of the body including upper extremities Atrium Chambers of the heart in which blood is received from the body before being passed to the ventricles. Atrioventricular Valve Prevents return of blood to the atrium. Artery Muscular-walled and elastic-walled blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the body. Appendicular The region of the body that includes the pelvic girdle and lower extremities. Unit 5 Scale-up To take a biopharmaceutical manufacturing process from the laboratory scale to a scale at which it is commercially feasible. Renewable Energy Process Engineer The operator of a complex chemical or biological plant. Pneumatics Uses compressed air or other neutral gases. Oil Eating Microbes Molarity Molar concentration of a solution, usually expressed as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution. Media A sterile preparation made for the growth, storage, maintenance, or transport of microorganisms or other cells. Incubator An apparatus in which environmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity, can be controlled; often used for growing bacterial cultures. Hydraulics Glycolysis The metabolic breakdown of glucose and other sugars that releases energy. Fluid Power Energy transmitted and controlled by means of a pressurized fluid, either liquid or gas. The term fluid power applies to both hydraulics and pneumatics. Fermentor A bioreactor used to grow bacteria or yeasts in liquid culture. Fermentation A process used to grow bacteria or yeasts in liquid culture. Enzymes Proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions by causing or speeding up reactions without being changed in the process themselves. Chemostat A growth chamber that keeps a bacterial culture at a specific volumeand rate of growth by limiting nutrient medium and removing spent culture. Anaerobic Metabolism The chemical process of maintenance of cells without air or oxygen. a) A compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with twice as many hydrogens as oxygens; sugar or starch. b) Any of a group of organic compounds that includes sugars, starches, celluloses, and gums and serves as a major energy source in the diet. Bioprocessing Using organisms or biologically derived macromolecules to carry out enzymatic reactions or to manufacture products. Bioreactor A container used for bioprocessing Biomass a) The dry weight of an organism or organisms. Can only be experimentally determined by completely drying (and therefore killing) the organism and then massing it on a balance. b) The total dry weight of all organisms in a particular sample, population, or area. Batch Culture A large-scale cell culture in which cell inoculum is cultured to a maximum density in a tank or airlift fermentor, harvested, and processed as a batch. Aseptic a) Sterile, free from bacteria, viruses, and contaminants such as foreign DNA. b) When surfaces are free of disease-causing microorganisms. The combination of fish farming and growing plants without soil (hydroponics). Antifoam Agent A chemical added to the fermentation broth to reduce surfacetension and counteract the foaming (bubbles) that can be caused bymixing, sparging, or stirring.
  Ventricle Stent The pacemaker of the heart. Semilunar Valve Reliability QRS Complex a) The rate at which the heart beats. b) The rhythmic contraction and expansion of the arteries with each beat of the heart Pacemaker Orthopedic Implant A branch of science and engineering devoted to the design and production of extremely small electronic devices and circuits built from individual atoms and molecules. Joint Electrocardiogram is a test that records the electrical activity of the heart, shows abnormal rhythms, and detects heart muscle damage. a) A choice between equally unpleasant courses of action. b) A situation that requires a choice between options that are or seem equally unfavorable or mutually exclusive. Information (measurements or statistics) used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, calculation or transmission. Axial Energy that is captured from on-going natural processes such as production of fuels such as ethanol from biomass Bacteria that eat oil, hydrocarbons, and other contanimants Uses pressurized liquid, for example, oil or water. Carbohydrate Aquaponics Unit 4 Essential Questions What is biotechnical engineering? How did important events build on previous knowledge? Which events, people, or ideas related to biotechnical engineering are most important to remember? Why? What industries work with or mainly develop biotechnically engineered products? Explain how biotechnical-engineered products impact the development and production of products and services that may improve or extend life? Explain how world events impact biotechnological advances? What areas of biotechnical engineering have a direct impact on your personal life and how does that affect you? Biotechnical engineering is the technolegy that works with biology to form daily life. Important events built on by making clear what has been or needs to still be done. It is quite important to remember the many firsts tied to vaccines and transplants. The prosthetics companies work mostly or even entirely with biotechnical concepts. Biotechnically engineered products impact other products by establishing what kills people and how machines can help to slow or stop these causes. World events tend to impact advances by creating a need for some kind of object able of reducing danger to the world Vaccines have a moderately high effect on my life by reducing the odds of me getting diseases that may still have been present had they not existed. Key Terms Essential Questions What techniques are necessary to attain an uncontaminated DNA sequence that can be compared to known data genetic bases by a forensic scientists or a pathologist? How are DNA sequences compared to each other? How does bioinformatics and engineering compliment one another? Why is bioinformatics the future of biotechnology? Why is it important to know about the chemistry of DNA? What two methods can be used to determine if transformation was successful? What are the ethical considerations regarding genetic engineering? What are the regulatory issues related to genetic engineering? What environmental conditions, both physical and biological, must be considered during the scale up of an organism for bioprocessing? What approaches are taken to isolate and purify pharmaceutical compounds generated by the biopharma industry? The items may be purified using a filter or some kind of pump. Some techniques used to attain untainted samples of dna are swabbing the sample to get a list of the different dna's located in the sample. DNA sequences are compared by their amino acids that make up the chain. Bioinformatics and engineering complement eachother because the information is usable to create organisms capable of resisting or taking advantage of previous flaws. Eventually the bioinformatics will be able to tell us the way something is built in such a way that we will be able to restructure it using the biology of it. Knowing the chemistry of dna allows us to understand the basic blueprint that DNA follows Two common methods of checking if a transformation was successful are to insert a glowing gene into the object and another is giving an organism a resistance to some kind of stimulant or toxin. There are the ethics of creating life using science being somewhat frowned upon because changing things are subject to mistakes that would be horrible to see in a created being. Some regulatory factors are the bans on certain kinds of genetic engineering focused largely around anything human or any kind of cloning. One must keep in mind the effects changing even a small gene can do to an ecosystem or creature. Such as creating a plant with no predators growing out of control.
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