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Deciduous Forest

Biology 11 2nd hour 12/30/12

Mackenzie Reinke

on 11 January 2013

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Transcript of Deciduous Forest

The deciduous forest is characterized by trees that lose their leaves at the end of each growing season. In Minnesota these woodlands include sugar maples in areas where lakes, rivers, and rugged terrain protect them from fire. At the prairie’s edge, where fires are common, oaks dominate. Description: http://files.dnr.state.mn.us/education_safety/education/forestry/biomes/deciduous.pdf Biological Community Producer: White Birch Primary Consumer: White-Tailed Deer Habitat: White-tailed deer are highly adaptable species and thrive in a variety of habitats. The areas that provide the most suitable environment include a mixture of hardwoods, croplands, brushlands and pasturelands. http://www.naturalresources.msstate.edu/wildlife/white-tailed-deer.html Population Size: Reproductive Behavior: Nutrition: White-tailed deer require a variety of foods for growth and reproduction. During the spring through fall, they feed on grasses, legumes, weeds and fruit. Their diet consists of acorns, green growth, woody plant stems and evergreen leaves during the fall and winter. http://www.naturalresources.msstate.edu/wildlife/white-tailed-deer.html Food Web Position: http://pingryms.pbworks.com/f/1321924854/Biotic%204.jpg Sensitivity to Environmental Insults: Deer have few natural predators and are managed primarily through hunting. As their population in certain areas increases, so does disease and parasites that can ultimately cause widespread die-offs. http://www.naturalresources.msstate.edu/wildlife/white-tailed-deer.html Human Usefulness: Humans hunt deer for recreational activities, and also to control their population during certain seasons. http://www.naturalresources.msstate.edu/wildlife/white-tailed-deer.html Symbiotic Relationship: Habitat: Population Size: Reproductive Behavior: Nutrition: Food Web Position: Sensitivity to Enviornments: Human Usefulness: Simbiotic Relationship: Secondary Consumer: Coyotes Habitat: Population Size: Reproductive Behavior: Nutrition: Food Web Position: http://pingryms.pbworks.com/f/1321924854/Biotic%204.jpg Sensitivity to Envoirnmental Insults: Human Usefulness: Simbiotic Relationship: Decomposer: Earthworms Habitat: Population Size: Reproductive Behavior: Nutrition: Food Web position: Sensitivity to Enviornments: Human usefulness: Simbiotic Relationship: Physical Characteristics of Deciduous Forest: Climate: Surface Conditions: Food Web for The Decidious Forest: Energy Pyramid for the Decidous Forest: Enviornmental Impact Report: Why are gypsy moths invasive species in Minnesota? Gypsy moths are invasive species in Minnesota because they are not originally from Minnesota. They have become one of the most damaging tree defoliators in the U.S. And they feed on the leaves of deciduous trees. http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/invasives/terrestrialanimals/gypsymoth/index.html Where did the Gypsy moths come from? Gypsy moths come from Europe. What do gypsy moths do in a forest setting? Gypsy moths feed on the leaves of deciduous forest trees and defoliate entire trees! Defoliation:
1.to strip (a tree, bush, etc.) of leaves.
2.to destroy or cause widespread loss of leaves in (an area of jungle, forest, etc.). http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/invasives/terrestrialanimals/gypsymoth/index.html http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/defoliation?s=t How is the introduction of the Gypsy Moth going to impact your: Producer: The Gypsy Moths defoliate the leaves of the producer trees! http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/invasives/terrestrialanimals/gypsymoth/index.html Primary Consumer: Primray consumers who eat the leaves of the trees as well, don't have an efficient food supply. Therefore their populations will decrease. http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/invasives/terrestrialanimals/gypsymoth/index.html Secondary consumer: The secondary consumers food supply will be low as well since the primary consumers population decreased. Causing their population to decrease as well. http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/invasives/terrestrialanimals/gypsymoth/index.html Decomposer: Since the trees will have little to no leaves thhey will have nothing to shed every year. Causing the decomposers to have a little supply of leaves to decompose. http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/invasives/terrestrialanimals/gypsymoth/index.html What can be done to make sure that the Gypsy Moth will not harm the balance in your forest? Unfortunately being a non-native pest, there are few natural controls of the gypsy moth and non preventing its eventual establishment in Minnesota. What YOU could do: You could remove gypsy moth egg masses from your vehicles and belonging. You could also buy local firewood, ad support MDA (Minnesota Department of Agriculture) program trappers placing traps for the moths. http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/invasives/terrestrialanimals/gypsymoth/index.html Seasons: Fall: Leaves change colors.
Autumn: Leaves fall off, making them deciduous. The leaves fall off in order to survive the harsh winters.
Spring: the trees grow their leaves back. Precipitation and Humidity: Information:http://biologydf.webnode.com/physical-features/ Picture:http://www.sunrisesol.com/Lily/ http://www.sunrisesol.com/Lily/ http://www.sunrisesol.com/Lily/ The average rainfall is 30 to 60 inches a year. Humidity in these forests is high, from 60% to 80%. http://www.sunrisesol.com/Lily/ Temperature: The average annual temperature in a deciduous forest is 50° F Soil: Forest soil tends to have 5 layers, including a surface layer of decomposing plant debris and a zone of leaching. http://www.sunrisesol.com/Lily/ Water: Freshwater sources: Many freshwater tributaries begin as small springs seeping from the ground. The flow rate of the springs is dependent on the type of underground rock, the amount of water in the aquifer and seasonal rainfall. Forest Tributaries: Forest streams and small rivers form their own habitat that support and nourish many different types of plants and animals, like fish. http://www.ehow.com/info_8358643_bodies-water-deciduous-forest.html http://www.ehow.com/info_8358643_bodies-water-deciduous-forest.html Picture:http://www.extension.umn.edu/yardandgarden/YGLNews/images2/Feb07/GlobalWarmingMN-lg.jpg Topography: http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/white_birch.htm Lives in a colder climate. The paper birch doesn't like shade and is the first tree to grow back in places that have had a fire or where trees have been cut. The bark is often used as a fire starter because it burns even when its wet. Native Americans also used the bark to cover their canoes. They also used it to make baskets, baby carriers, mats, torches and moose calls. Because the wood was strong and flexible it was made into spears, bows and arrows, snowshoes and sleds. The wood is now used for building lumber to make veneer, pulpwood and plywood. Syrup, wine, beer, and medicinal tonics are made from the sap. http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/white_birch.htm Moose and white-tailed deer will eat the leaves and shoots of the paper birch. Porcupines like to eat the bark and rabbits will eat the seedlings and young saplings. Yellow-bellied sapsuckers will peck little holes in the bark and feed on the sap. Hummingbirds and squirrels also drink the sap from the sap wells the sapsuckers made. http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/white_birch.htm The paper birch has both male and female flowers. These flowers turn into little winged leaves, which come in early August to mid September. The wings help the seeds to fly away from the parent tree so there won't be competition for food and water. http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/white_birch.htm http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/white_birch.htm http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/livingwith_wildlife/coyotes/index.html Their primary foods are rabbits and mice, but they are very opportunistic, and will feed on other small mammals, deer, birds, carrion, and even melons. http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/livingwith_wildlife/coyotes/index.html Although coyotes can be found anywhere in Minnesota, distribution and population size is variable. Currently, populations are establishing and increasing in the Twin Cities metro area. http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/livingwith_wildlife/coyotes/index.html Humans use coyotes for recreational activities such as hunting. They are allowed to hunt to cotrol their popultaion size during certain seasons. http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070810074033AAH9vrNhttp://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070810074033AAH9vrN Mushroom skin and stalks, leaves. Earthworms have a very diverse diet and there is not much they will not eat. http://earthwormsinfo.com http://www.ehow.com/about_4699361_earthworms.html http://www.deer-pictures.com/white_tailed_deer_buck.jpg Picture:http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/snapshots/ecosystems/deciduousforest.html http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/waite/mn_biomes_files/image002.jpg
Red worms are commonly bred and sold for natural garden use. The worms dig through the soil and make it ideal for planting flowers and vegetables. Several other earthworms, especially nightcrawlers, are used as fishing bait. The worms apply easily to a hook and their wiggling body and scent attract all types of fish. Read more: Information on Earthworms | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/about_5422164_information-earthworms.html#ixzz2HUMsiuO0
All earthworms have both female and male reproductive organs, but they must be with a mate to reproduce. The two worms come to the surface and stick their bodies together to mate.
They mate by stretching out alongside one another in opposite directions to exchange sperm and fertilize ovum. A few species can clone or self-fertilize. Read more: Information on Earthworms | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/about_5422164_information-earthworms.html#ixzz2HUNi4dKo
Earthworms require a habitat that keeps their skin moist at all times. For this reason, they are often found underground in damp soil, in shallow puddles or under plant debris that traps moisture.

Earthworms are invertebrate creatures that live mostly underground, where conditions are cool and moist. Read more: Earthworms Facts | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/facts_5423159_earthworms.html#ixzz2HUO8dY8W
Earthworms aerate the soil by tunneling through it. They break down decaying matter in the soil, producing castings that add nutrients for plants. Read more: Earthworms Facts | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/facts_5423159_earthworms.html#ixzz2HUPG5lfl
Earthworms will come to the surface only on cloudy days and at night, unless heavy rains drive them from their burrows. They will be dormant within their burrows during cold weather or extremely hot weather---especially in drought conditions. Read more: Life Cycle of Earthworms | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/about_5368044_life-cycle-earthworms.html#ixzz2HUPkV5d8 Read more: Life Cycle of Earthworms | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/about_5368044_life-cycle-earthworms.html#ixzz2HUQ1wFbh
There may be as many as 50,000 earthworms in an acre of moist soil. Earthworms basically get their nutrition from fungi and bacteria. In turn, earthworms promote the activity of these organisms by shredding and increasing the surface area of organic matter so that it is more available to these small organisms. http://scienceprojectideasforkids.com/2010/earthworms-food-web/ http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/mammals/coyote.html Coyotes are nomads. Males may roam over territories as large as 36 square miles, though females usually stay within a six square mile area. Adult male coyotes may share the territory of two or more females, which may overlap the ranges of other males. Coyotes normally move two to three miles per day. They are found throughout the state. They are increasing in southern Minnesota, including the Twin Cities area. Coyotes prefer a combination of farm land and forest habitat, but survive well in the prairie or dense forest areas. http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/mammals/coyote.html The females will go into a 24 hour period and must go into heat in November in the northern portions of their range. The mating season lasts from Oct to Dec. http://www.ansci.wisc.edu/jjp1/ansci_repro/misc/websites09/thur/Deer%20Seasonality/Deer%20Seasonality.html After the young (fawns) are born each spring, there are between 900,000 and 1,000,000 deer in Minnesota. The hunting season is important to keep the deer population from getting too large. Each year, Minnesota hunters harvest between 150,000 and 200,000 deer. http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/mammals/whitetaileddeer.html
Many mushrooms prefer a particular wood for their growth because they need the nutrients and conditions that they can get from that one wood. Some form symbiotic relationships with certain trees, as the chanter does with birch, but many also feed on dead, decaying wood. Read more: Mushrooms That Grow on Birch Trees | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/list_7327114_mushrooms-grow-birch-trees.html#ixzz2HadvN0Fu The White Tailed Deers Symbiotic relationship is Parasitism. This means that on species benefit and the other one does not. It is Parasitism because a deer eats grass and the the grass dies. http://qpanimals.pbworks.com/w/page/5925201/White%20Tailed%20Deer
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