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Gut Microbiota, Probiotics and Obesity

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on 4 December 2013

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Transcript of Gut Microbiota, Probiotics and Obesity

Image by Tom Mooring
Gut Microbiota, Probiotics and Obesity
Competitive Exclusion Principle
Probiotic species compete for nutrients and space with pathogenic or harmful species.
Complete competitors cannot coexist
Medical condition- BMI over 30
Excess body fat- reduced life expectancy
Co-morbidities: CV disease, diabetes, cancers
Increasing prevalence
1993 13% men, 16% women obese
2011 24% men, 26% women
Set to continue increasing
Effective treatment methods needed
Probiotic bacteria can produce immunoregulatory metabolites
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is one example
CLA's are polyunsaturated fatty acids with anti-inflammatory effects (Bassaganya-Riera et al. 2012)
Also found in dairy products and beef.
Other beneficial health effects
CLA’s are associated with reductions in body fat.
3.2 g/day CLA p90 g fat loss per week, Meta-analysis, 2007

Literature Cited
Zoetendal.E, Vaughan.E & De Vos. W. 2006. A microbial world within us. Molecular Microbiology. 59. 1639–1650
Cani. P. 2013. Gut microbiota and obesity: lessons from the microbiome. Briefings in Functional Genomics. 12, 381-387.
Turnbaugh.P & Gordon.J.2009. The core gut microbiome, energy balance and obesity. The Journal of Physiology, 587, 4153-4158.
Jumpertz.R, Le.S, Turnbaugh.J, Trinidad.C, Bogardus.C, Gordon.J & Krakoff.J. 2011. Energy-balance studies reveal associations between gut microbes, caloric load, and nutrient absorption in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.94. 58–65.
Duncan.H, Lobley.E, Holtrop.G et al. 2008. Human colonic microbiota associated with diet, obesity and weight loss. Int J Obesity. 32, 1720–1724.
Hardin, G. 1960. The Competitive Exclusion Principle. Science 131, 1292-1297.

Gemma Bridge

Gut microbiota is important to energy harvest and homeostatic mechanisms.
Disruption is associated with disease.
Altered gut barrier results in bacterial translocation- release of endotoxin- inflammation.
Modulating the gut microbiota may restore gut barrier.
Also modulate lipid absorption.

Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that needs an effective treatment method.
Thank You
Humans are 'super organisms'
Holobionts (Mindell 1992)
10% human cells
90% microbial cells
Human provides microbial habitat
5 habitats: oral-nasal, respiratory, skin, urogenital, intestine
Gut Microbiota
Epithelium: tight junctions
Barrier function
Prevents translocation
Probiotics interact with gut to maintain barrier
Reduce inflammation
releases GLP2 (glucagon-like peptide-2)
Mucosal and epithelial integrity
Recent suggested impact of probiotics
Obesity progression
Probiotics are live bacteria found to have potential health benefits.
Lactobacillus spp
Found to improve intestinal microbial composition.
Could we restore a healthy microbiota using
Sacharolytic species not proteolytic species.
Increased concentration of lactic acid producing organisms.
Create low pH environment
Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118.
Bacteriocin-producing strain with probiotic characteristics.
Cover illustration (PNAS)
April 25, 2006; 103 (17)
Tiwari.G et al. 2012.Promising future of probiotics for human health: Current scenario. Chronicles of Young Scientists. 3.17-28
Image from Google
Maslowski.M & Mackay.C. 2011. Diet, gut microbiota and immune responses. Nature Immunology.12, 5–9
Co-evolution between host and microbes
Gut microbiota and host have co-evolved and are interdependent.
Microbiota helps with breakdown of food and nutrient release.
Host provides habitat.
Not surprising that disruption/ dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is a feature of disease.
Dysbiosis implicated in obesity- potential cause.
Dysbiosis: one or a few potentially harmful species dominate.
Bad outweighs good
Disease prone state
In response to over nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle fat cells in adipose tissue expand.
Visceral adiposity occurs
Increased free fatty acids in the blood and immune cell recruitment to adipose tissue
e.g. Macrophages
Fat deposition
Reduced fat oxidation
Increased insulin resistance
Increased gluconeogenisis
Increased lipidemia

Normal gut microbiota co-regulates metabolism, intestinal barrier function and weight
Gut dysbiosis implicated in all stages of obesity development.
Restore normal microbiota = reduce obesity?
Gut microbiota is affected by a number of factors
How Probiotics Function
Could we add something to alter the microbiota?

Gut microbiota Composition is Different in Obese individuals compared to lean individuals
Dysbiosis and Obesity
Thought to alter due to diet
What is obesity and how does it progress?
What is the gut microbiota and how does it interact with the host?
Can the gut microbiota be targeted as a treatment for obesity?
Probiotics and their role in the treatment of obesity.
What Will be Discussed?
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