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Dissertation lecture

Vocabulary learning: Interaction between contexts and images.
by

Javier Soto

on 28 November 2013

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Transcript of Dissertation lecture

Thesis Presentation
Vocabulary learning: Interaction between contexts and images.
Members: Gabriela Bravo Vera
Javier Soto Sepúlveda
Marcelo Valdés García
Content Table
Theory
Objectives
Hypotheses
Methodology
Results
Discussion
Introduction
Objectives
General Objective
Investigating the influence of contexts and images in word learning.
Specific Objectives
To determine the influence of linguistic contexts on the recognition of words, reading aloud, and semantic categorization of novel words.

To determine the influence of pictorial cues on word recognition, reading aloud and semantic categorization of novel words.

To present the effect of interaction between contexts and images.
Theory
Hypotheses
H1: HCV better performance than LCV

H2: CVI better performance than CVNI

H3: Combination of contexts and pictorial cues
faster RT´s and Accuracy



* CVI = context variability with images
* CVNI = context variability with no images


Training design:

- Selection of participants.
- Creation, selection and validation of the non-words list.
- Selection and validation of images.
- Association among words and images.
- Creation of the sentences.
- Distribution of the words

in three lists.
- Recording of the native speaker.
- Creation of the PPT presentations.

Vocabulary learning through context.

Vocabulary learning with images.

How those 2 elements interacted.
-Contextual learning
-Word acquisition in contexts
-The use of images in vocabulary learning
-Other studies
Contextual Learning

CONTEXTUAL LEARNING INFERENCE FROM STUDENTS

- To connect real life situations to new knowledge.
- To use previous knowledge as a helper.
Child contextual word learning

Children’s ability to grasp the meaning of unknown words and understand the intention conveyed by a speaker develops outstandingly as they grow up and become more proficient language users (Bloom, 2001).

The use of images in vocabulary learning

Picture superiority effect


Pictures are better remembered, they are illustrated easily.
(Paivio, 1971)
Methodology

Testing Design:

- Election of the tests.
- Preparation of the DMDX scripts.
Creation of the non-words list.

words were created using this webpage
http://elexicon.wustl.edu/
, under the following criteria:

-Length (4 minimum and 7 maximum)
-Orthographic N. (8 minimum and 12 maximum)
-BG Mean frequency (2000 minimum and 4000 maximum).
Selection and validation of images.
Association among words and images.
Creation of the sentences.
Distribution of the words across three lists.
Recording of the native speaker.
Election of the tests.
Preparation of the DMDX scripts.
Pilot and Main experiment.
Validation instrument
Ballow
Pali
Sentences
Vire
The
vire
was used as a war weapon.
The
vire
could be thrown or not.
The
vire
had a circular shape.
The
vire
was as deadly as a sword.
The Indian army used the
vire
in war.
The Frisbee and the
vire
are pretty similar.
Many variations of the
vire
were used.
Steel was used to create a
vire
.
The wind could not deflect the
vire
.
Xena was a regular user of the
vire
.
List 1

vire
ballow
reet
geal
pilly
pusty
trime
numble
vink
acrupt
dant
lebtor
Words
List 2

vist
blattop
ranish
grake
prew
pasten
tolly
nover
veed
alduce
dender
lingle
List 3

vawt
befin
riss
grame
peret
pali
tuddle
natch
voam
aperob
damor
lattle
Creation of the PPT presentations
Form 1
Form 2
Form 3
Randomization
Recognition Memory
Reading Aloud
Semantic categorization
Stages of the presentation
The presentation consisted of 4 parts:

Only sound with and without images
Repetition of the first stage
Sound, written form and images.
Presentation of the sentences
Methodology
Selection of the words

Words that do not begin with "s", "c", "z", "h" or "f"
Words that do not end with -ed, -er, -ing or -s
-2x2 Repeated Measures ANOVA

-Reaction Times and Accuracy

-Parameters for wrong answers
Recognition Memory Task
RT's

Context p = .685
Pictorial cues p = .959
Interaction p = .753
Accuracy

Context p = .001
Pictorial Cues p = .988
Interaction p = .002
Reading Aloud Task
RT's

Context p= .082
Pictorial cues p = .223
Interaction p = .337
Accuracy

Context p= .170
Pictorial cues p= .037
Interaction p = .001
Semantic Categorization Task
RT's

Context p= .063
Pictorial cues p = .241
Interaction p = .0001
Accuracy

Context p = .600
Pictorial cues p = .583
Interaction p = .001
Discussions
Conclusions
Contexts and images have different impact:

Contexts:

- The hypothesis of contextualizing the new vocabulary can be reinforced in order to improve the learning.
- It promotes inferences of word meaning.

Images and interaction:

- Images are a beneficial complement only when they are presented in multiple contexts.
- When images are presented in limited contextual content, their impact seems to be irrelevant.
Selection of participants
25 Fourth year students participated in the experiment.
They were distributed in two sections.




Word acquisition in contexts








Explicit goal of learning




Unconscious Conscious
Incidental learning
Deriving meaning
Absence of any explicit goal of learning

Other Studies


Vocabulary acquisition through contexts.

-
Bolger, Balass, Landen & Perfetti (2008)
Exposure to variable contexts leads to better learning of abstract meanings than a equivalent exposure to a single context.
-
Ferreira (2011)
Context variability improves reading aloud and semantic decision.


Findings and Limitations

- The previous studies were able to prove the variation in contexts improves the internalization of the meaning of new words.

- It is not clear whether non-linguistic contexts, such as images, can also affect word learning. The contextualization of a word involves sounds, images, real life situations, etc.

Vocabulary acquisition with images

-
Paivio (1971)
Picture superiority effect theory.
Images are better remembered than words because they are easily depicted by the verbal and the image codes.
-
Carpenter and Olson (2011)
Picture superiority effect is present just recalling only the name of the picture.

Findings and Limitations

- The use of images is a beneficial tool when learning new vocabulary.

- They did not show how the presence of images interacts with linguistic context. In real life, readers do not read words in isolation.
Experiment description
Vocabulary learning.
Contexts and images.
RTs and accuracy.
2 training and 1 testing sessions.
Vire
Familiar
Unfamiliar
+
Vire
+
Blattop
No Hesitation
No Noise
+
Ranish
Ranish
Living
Non-living

Recognition Memory Task

- Over 2500 milliseconds and below 300 milliseconds.
- Incorrect choice.

Reading aloud Task

- Over 2500 milliseconds and below 300
milliseconds.
-Change in a phoneme or stress.

Semantic Categorization Task

- Over 2500 milliseconds and below 300
milliseconds.
- Incorrect choice.
Discussion

-Results are similar with Ferreira's (2011) and Bolger (2008) studies.
-Differences No memory tasks nor use of images.
-Cain, Freeman & Oakhill (2004)

- Accuracy Images in HC Reinforcement and more information.
Images in LC Attention might change.

-Yoshii & Flaitz (2002) in their memory task "...images and context have better results than context on their own" (HCVI > HCVNI)
Discussion
-Ferrerira (2011) When the meaning of a word is learned by several contexts, it affected reading speed.

-Differences Type of words and Participants

-Interaction Images benefit more HCV than LCV

Images reinforce HCV but replace remaining contexts in LCV

-Center, Freeman & Robertson (1999) "...pictures helps students in new word learning and in making better predictions and inferences"
Discussion

- Interaction presents interesting results.
- HCV > LCV by the use of images.

- Carpenter & Olson (2011)...

Picture + Swahili word better performance and recalling effect than English + Swahili word.

- HCV < LCV by the absence of images, because the images did not represent reinforcement in students' learning
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