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Brain Structure and Function

By Jenna Clubb, Maggie Saras and Evan Griffiths
by

Jenna Clubb

on 21 February 2014

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Transcript of Brain Structure and Function

Brain Structure and Function
Frontal Lobe
• Assists in motor control, purposeful behavior, problem solving, and cognitive activities (planning ahead, decision making)

• Front-most region of the cerebral cortex

Parietal Lobe
Temporal Lobe
• Assists in auditory perception, language comprehension, and visual stimulation

• Anterior to the occipital lobe, inferior to the frontal lobe

Occipital Lobe
Main visual processing center from the eyes

Bottom, back part of the cortex
Frontal
Lobe
Parietal
Lobe
Temporal
Lobe
Occipital
Lobe
Medulla Oblongata:
• Maintains vital body functions

• Center for breathing, waking, sleeping, and the beating of your heart

• Inferior to the pons and anterior to the cerebellum.


Cerebrum:

• Associated with higher brain function (thought and action)

• Made up of the four lobes

• The cortex that covers the uppermost part of the brain

• Superior to all other brain structures

Hippocampus:

Plays important role in memory, emotion, and retaining information

• Converts short term memory into permanent memory and recalls spatial relationships

• Located within the temporal lobes, adjacent to the amygdala

Ventricle:
• Cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid

• Absorbs physical shocks to the brain, distributes nutritive materials to and removes wastes from nervous tissue, and provides a chemically stable environment

• Located within the cerebrum

Diencephalon:
• Maintains vital functions, most of which relate to the regulation of visceral activities by way of other brain regions and the nervous system

• Composed of the thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal gland, and pituitary gland

• Sits on top of the brain stem

Pineal Gland:

Regulates endocrine functions, converts nervous system signals, causes the feeling of sleepiness, and influences sexual development

• Situated between the cerebral hemispheres, attached to the third ventricle

Integrates sensory information from different parts of the body, manipulates objects, processes information related to touch
Superior to the occipital lobe & posterior to the frontal lobe
SENSORY & MOTOR AREA
Located in the cerebral cortex & separated by the central sulcus
MOTOR AREA:
SENSORY AREA:
Controls voluntary
movements. The
right side controls
the left and the left
side controls the
right

Receives sensory
information from
Thalmic nerve
projections &
processes that
information


PONS
Links modulla oblangata and the
thalmus
Contain nuclei that relay signals from the forebrain to the cerebellum
Deal with sleep, swallowing, bladder control, hearing, equilibrium, posture
Thalamus
Between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain
Relays sensory and motor signals the the cerebral cortex
Regulates sleep, consciousness and alertness
MIDBRAIN
Located below the
cerebral cortex and above
the hindbrain (near the center
of the brain)
Part of the brainstem
Controls vision, hearing, motor
control, temperature regulation
Reticular Formation
Located throughout the brain stem
Helps with cardiovascular control,
sleep & consciousness, pain modulation, habituation, somatic motor control
Pea sized gland that sits in the sella turcica
Hormones secreted from this gland control
pain relief, sex organs, growth, blood pressure,
breast milk production

Fundamental component of the cerebrum
Found deep in the white
matter the cerebral
hemisphere
Organizes motor
behaviors (eye
movements)
Jenna's Video
Corpus Callosum
Maggie's Embed
Hippocampus Humor by NOVA PBS (Published Sept. 26, 2012, taken from YouTube)
It's a wide, flat bundle of neural fibers beneath the cortex.

It connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres and facilitates interhemispheric communication.
Cerebellum
The cerebellum is located the base of the brain where the spinal chord meets the brain.
It controls motor movement coordination, it also contributes to , precision, balance, and accurate timing.

Sulci
Gyri
Could be described as the crevasses on the brain.
Creates surface area and fits our brain in our skull.
The ridge parts of the brain
The gyri serve to increase surface area for information processing capability
FocusAppsStore, . Parkinson's Disease (Understanding Disease Neurology). 2012. Video. Youtube.comWeb. 10 Feb 2014. <
Hypothalamus
Meninges
The meninges are the membranes covering the brain and the spinal cord.
It gives blood supply to the skull, protects from mechanical injury and space for the flow of cerebrospinal fluid.
Evans vid.
"How the Body Works : Movement and the Cerebellum." YouTube. YouTube, 03 Aug. 2007. Web. 14 Feb. 2014.
It function in the body with-
Endocrine Function Control
Homeostasis
Motor Function Control
The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. It is posterior to the optic chiasm and bordered on the sides by the temporal lobes and optic tracts.
BASAL GANGLIA
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