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Transcript of Nationalism
What is Nationalism?
Political ideology in which a nation claims the right to a state - boundaries of the nation should be the boundaries of the state.
We can also define as is the ideology that such a community forms a separate sociopolitical group; nationalists seek to safeguard the interests of this particular group, as well as take precautions necessary to preserve what they see as its distinct identity.
Nationalism invokes (beg or pray) a sense of belonging to and serving a national community, a pride in culture and traditions, and a sense that this particular community is entitled to for a state and to promote its own interests.
Nationalism can be two contrasting aspects; an sense of common nationality is important for the stability of the political community, and the resistance to domination by foreign states but, can spill over into xenophobia (unreasonable fear and hatred), racism, and militaristic self-aggrandizement (bigger).
Some of the few examples of Nationalism:
The waving of flags and passionate anthem singing
The great outpouring of support by citizens of a nation for their athletes in the Olympics
Hitler's unity of the Germans through various techniques in order to achieve his agenda
The French Revolution
Anthony D. Smith theory
Case of historical nationalism event
Egypt remains locked in a protracted process of political transition after the resignation of the long-serving leader Hosni Mubarak in February 2011. The country is deeply divided between Islamist and secular groups, while the Egyptian military remains the country's chief political broker and decision-maker.
The results of the first democratic elections held in 2011/12, won overwhelmingly by Islamist parties, were nullified, leaving Egypt with no elected state institutions. Egypt’s first democratically elected parliament in decades was dissolved in June 2012. The Muslim Brotherhood candidate Mohammed Morsi won the presidential elections in mid-2012, but he was deposed a year later through a combination of mass anti-government protest and a military coup. This legal vacuum has created a political tug-of-war between the military, the judiciary, and dozens of political parties vying for power.
Political uncertainty and anxiety over the future have generated ongoing political protest, labor strikes, deep mistrust between Islamist and secular parties, and Muslim-Christian tension in some parts of the country. Violence and criminal activities have been on the rise in the poorly-policed Sinai peninsula, where militant Islamist groups stepped up attacks on security forces.
Latest Developments: The Downfall of Muslim Brotherhood
The military has installed an interim government that will lead the process of drafting a new constitution and preparing for fresh elections. Elections are expected in early 2014, but the situation is highly unpredictable. With no constitution and no parliament, there’s no consensus on the basic "rules of the game".
The Muslim Brotherhood has condemned Morsi's overthrow as a coup, and refuses to recognize the new regime. Secular parties have backed the military, and are pressing for a timely transition back to civilian rule, but they are also divided and have no common strategy. The revolutionary youth groups – which had spearheaded the pro-democracy protests since 2011 – worry the generals might use their power to protect the old order and quash the gains of the 2011 uprising.
• Autonomy: "freedom"
• Unity: "social and cultural union."
• Identity: "the persistence of a specific pattern over a finite period and applies to cultural identities."
Related to our case
Autonomy: About defending a self government.
Identity: When egyptians wanted preserve their own culture without the muslim intervention as in the case of religion.
Unity: When egyptians that share the same ideology joined to preserve the nation culture and at the same time guaranteed its continuity.
Related to our case
Authenticity is saw when egyptians defend their own ideas.
Continuity when egyptians want to preserve their customs (religion).
Dignity as the feeling of patriotism.
Destiny about the transcendence of this Rebellion.
Attachment about the self-sacrifice for nation that is reflected when people put their lives on risk in order to protect their homeland.
Definition of Nationalism
Anthony D. Smith theory.
Case of nationalism event.
Fundamental ideals and core concepts.
Participation with class.
Participation with class
Authenticity: "means the expression of themselves."
Continuity: preserve the sequence of culture, social and economic model.
Dignity: Human worth.
Destiny: about the transcendence.
Attachment: "love and self-sacrifice for nation well-being. It is also seen as the homeland where "people is looking for the economic well-being and physical security."
Geller, Ernest. 1983. "Nations and Nationalism" New York: Cornell University Press.
Festenstein, Matthew. and Kenny Burs.2005. "Political Ideologies". New York: Oxford University Press.
Kamenka, Eugene. 1976. "Nationalism: The nature and evolution of an idea" New York: Australian National University Press.
Ozkirimli, Umut. "Theories of Nationalism: A critical introduction" 2010. United Kingdom: Macmillan Press.
Smith, D, Anthony.2010."Nationalism" Great Britain: Polity Press.
According to Ernest Geller, "Nationalism is primarily a political principle, which hold that the political and the national unit should be congruent"
Jean Jacques Rousseau elaborates that love of country, which every true republican has drunk along his mother’s milk is identified with ‘love of law and liberty’. He continues by saying that we need loyalty to our political community in order to follow it laws, participate in their enactment, guard against political corruption and, when necessary, to fight to preserve the community against foreign domination.
Herder calls this spiritual unity grounded in a common culture or language Volk or nation.
Mohandas K. Gandhi.
According to these investigation, we predate that nationalism is defined by fundamental ideals and core concepts that distinguish it from others ideologies. Relating it to our historical case, we achieve that "nationalism is a reaction of peoples who feel culturally at disadvantage" (Kamenka 1976, 27), that means the rebellion of citizens against the new muslim elements that affect their culture and feel in an unfavorable situation. We can also mention that nationalism has its beginnings on the French Revolution but it is still present is our days such as the egyptian situation.