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Production of Citric Acid

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BearGuin Hui Sian

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of Production of Citric Acid

Project Objectives Process Description Operation Unit Production of Citric Acid Product Description Citric Acid
Molecular Formula : C6H8O7
Chemical Name : 2-hydroxy-propane-
1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid
Function : natural preservative,flavouring agent,Excellent chelating agent,softening water,better cleansing properties,and natural
Main Producer : Aspergillus.Niger 1)To understand the process of
formation of citric acid from
empty fruit bunch by
Aspergillus Niger.

2)To understand the process applied
and materials consumed by the
3)To understand the types and
functions of operation units
installed in the plant.
4)To determine and
understand the types of
valves and their accessories
utilized by the plant.

5)To identify the function of
different types of valves.

6)To develop the
Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
of plant system using
Microsoft Visio software.
7)To identify and interpret the ISA
Symbology for the Process Flow

8)To apply approriate symbols and
sketch the Process Flow Diagram.

9)To develop the Piping and
Instrumentation Diagram
(P & ID) of a plant system using
Microsoft Visio software. 10)To identify and interpret the ISA
Symbology for the Piping &
Instrumentation Diagram.

11)To apply appropriate symbols and
skecth the Piping &
Instrumentation Diagram. Empty fruit bunches (EFB) and
Experimental procedure for solid state
bioconversion Fermentation
The Microogranism and Preparation of Inoculum
Mycelium Washing
Harvesting and Extraction of Citric Acid
Reconditioning of the crude acid solution
Separation of solid impurities and of oxalic acid
Precipitation and Decomposition of Calcium Citrate
Evaporation and Crystallization of Calcium Citrate Drying and Crystallized Products are formed Heat Exchanger [TAGGINGNUMBER : E-100]
Shell and tube heat exchangers consist of a series of tubes. One set of these tubes contains the fluid that must be either heated or cooled. The second fluid runs over the tubes that are being heated or cooled so that it can either provide the heat or absorb the heat required. A set of tubes is called the tube bundle and can be made up of several types of tubes: plain, longitudinally finned, etc. Shell and tube heat exchangers are typically used for high-pressure applications.
For this case, heat exchanger used to increase the temperature of solution from centrifuge. Agitator vessel [TAGGING NUMBER: VS-100, VS-101]
 Any vessel used to contain the reactants taking part in a reaction.
For this case, agitator vessel used to precipitate the desired product by using lime milk Ca(OH2). But here the product will be calcium citrate then the calcium citrate will change to citric acid by using sulphuric acid H2SO4.

Effluent reservoir [TAGGING NUMBER: TK-103]
This is where the mycelium is washed to prevent the loss of citric acid.

  Dryer [TAGGING NUMBER: D-100]
A compressed air dryer is a device for removing water vapor from compressed air. Compressed air dryers are commonly found in a wide range of industrial and commercial facilities.
The process of air compression concentrates atmospheric contaminants, including water vapour. This raises the dew point of the compressed air relative to free atmospheric air and leads to condensation within pipes as the compressed air cools downstream of the compressor.
Excessive water in compressed air, either in the liquid or vapor phase, can cause a variety of operational problems for users of compressed air. These include freezing of outdoor air lines; corrosion of equipment; fouling of processes and products.
For this case, drier is used to dry the crystal form of citric acid. Evaporator [TAGGING NUMBER : CY-100]
Evaporators are used for reducing product volume, remove water prior to drying, and to improve product storage life. Evaporation is a highly energy-efficient way of removing water or other liquids and thus the primary process for the production of concentrates. Process time can be shortened by distributing the liquid to a greater surface area, or by using a higher temperature.
For this case, evaporator process used to get the solid citric acid from liquid form. Peeler Centrifuge [TAGGING NUMBER : CG-100]
Designed to handle a wide spectrum of materials, including pharmaceuticals. This range of machines offers process cleanliness without operator intervention. The design ensures a crevice-free polished internal finish with no dead areas. The peeler knife mechanism facilitates the complete removal of the product heel.
For this case, the gypsums and citric acid solution were separated. Rotary Filter[ TAGGING NUMBER : R-100 ]
The technique is well suited to high solids liquids that would blind or block other forms of filter. The drum is pre-coated with a filter aid, typically of diatomaceous earth (DE) or Perlite. After pre-coat has been applied, the liquid to be filtered is sent to the tub below the drum. The drum rotates through the liquid and the vacuum sucks liquid and solids onto the drum pre-coat surface, the liquid portion is "sucked" by the vacuum through the filter media to the internal portion of the drum, and the filtrate pumped away. The solids adhere to the outside of the drum, which then passes a knife, cutting off the solids and a small portion of the filter media to reveal a fresh media surface that will enter the liquid as the drum rotates. The knife advances automatically as the surface is removed. Autoclave[ TAGGING NUMBER : F-100 ]
Autoclave issued to sterilize equipment and supplies by subjecting them to high pressure saturated steam at 121 °C for around 15–20 minutes depending on the size of the load and the contents. For this case, the reaction between the microorganism which are Aspergillus niger with the product from the mixer to enhance the production of citric acid. Mixer [TAGGING NUMBER: MX-100]
Defined as the ‘intermingling of two or more dissimilar portions of a material, resulting in the attainment of a desired level of uniformity, either physical or chemical, in the final product’ 
For this case mixer used for mixing the grind EFB with the moisture content in order to produce the product in liquid form. Condenser [TAGGING NUMBER : E-100]
The condenser receives hot high pressure gas refrigerant from the air conditioning compressor. It cools this gas (it looks like a radiator) turning the gas into a cooler liquid. (condensing it).For this case,condenser used to release gas or water vapour from evaporator for crystallization.

Storage Tank [TAGGING NUMBER: TK-100,TK-101,TK-102]
Refrigeration/heating, storage and keeping cool/warm, mixing, agitating, keeping in suspension, etc. are basic necessities in the processing of liquid foodstuffs.
storage tank used to store the product which is citric acid.
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