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FOOD POISONING

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by

Omnia El-sayed

on 28 March 2013

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Transcript of FOOD POISONING

FOOD POISONING what is the food poisoning? any illness resulting from ingestion of water and wide variety of food contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi) Types of food poisoning **must be suspected when an acute illness with gastrointestinal or neurological manifestation affect two or more persons, who have shared a meal during the previous 72 hours. 1-Bacterial Food poisoning 2-Non- Bacterial Food poisoning 1-Bacterial Food poisoning 1-food infection 2. food intoxication refers to the presence of bacteria or other microbes which infect the body consumption. refers to the ingestion of toxins contained within the food, including bacterially produced exotoxins Classification Of Food Poisoning I. Based on symptoms and duration of onset II. Based on pathogenesis Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus Yersinia enterocolitica Fever, abdominal cramps and diarrhoea within 16-48 hours Enterotoxigenic E.coli
Vibrio cholera
Vibrio parahemolyticus Enterohemorrhagic E.coli Nausea and vomiting within six hours Fever and abdominal cramps within 16-48 hours Salmonella,
Shigella,
Vibrio parahemolyticus, Enteroinvasive E.coli Abdominal cramps and watery diarrhoea within 16-72 hours Bloody diarrhoea without fever within 72-120 hours Clostridium botulinum Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and paralysis within 18-36 hours Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxigenic E.coli, Vibrio cholerae Campylobacter jejuni Shigella Salmonella Salmonella typhi Listeria monocytogenes Food intoxications resulting from the ingestion of preformed bacterial toxins Food intoxications caused by noninvasive bacteria that secrete toxins while adhering to the intestinal wall Food intoxications that follow an intracellular invasion of the intestinal epithelial cells Diseases caused by bacteria that enter the blood stream via the intestinal tract. The food poisoning chain right conditions to grow that is warmth (between 5°C - 60°C) and moisture. -there must be bacteria on the food must have time to grow and multiply. preventing each of these, the food poisoning chain will be broken and food poisoning prevented Symptoms Nausea Headache Vomiting Fever Diarrhea Salmonella Staphylococcus Aureus
Found in human nose and throat (also skin) Clostridium Perfingens
Found in animals and birds Bacillus Cereus
Found in soil, vegetation, cereals and spices Clostridium Botulinum
Found in the soil and associated with vegetables and meats Most common food poisoning bacteria Found in animals, raw poultry and birds Lab diagnosis Staphylococcal food poisoning S.aureus is gram positive cocci
singles, pairs, short chains,and irregular grape like clusters.
Only those strains that produce enterotoxin can cause food poisoning. Food is usually contaminated from infected food handler
isolated in large numbers from the food and their toxins demonstrated in the food.
Enterotoxin may be detected and identified by gel diffusion.

**Staphylococcal enterotoxins are very stable, their toxicity and antigenicity are not completely destroyed by boiling or even canning Laboratory diagnosis Pathogenesis: Botulism:Clostridium botulinum gram positive
anaerobic spore
bearing bacilli
widely distributed in soil,
sediments of lakes and ponds, and decaying vegetation The toxin is released only after the death and lysis of cells
resists digestion
absorbed by the upper part of the GI
blood
peripheral neuromuscular synapses
toxin binds to the presynaptic stimulatory terminals and blocks release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
flaccid paralysis
Death may occur due to respiratory paralysis within 7 days. Spoilage of food or swelling of cans
or presence of bubbles inside the can
indicate clostridial growth.
Food is inoculated in blood agar or egg-yolk agar, anareobically for 3-5 days at 37oC.
The toxin can be demonstrated by injecting intraperitoneally the extract of food or culture into mice or guinea pig. Lab diagnosis: :Pathogenesis Clostridium perfringens gram positive
anaerobic
spore bearing bacilli
food-borne outbreaks of C.perfringens involve meat products that are eaten 1- 2 days after preparation. . Meats that have been cooked, allowed to cool slowly, and then held for some time before eating. Spores in food may survive cooking and then germinate when they are improperly stored.
vegetative cells form endospores in the intestine,
release enterotoxins.
The toxins result in excessive fluid accumulation in the intestinal lumen. Isolation from food or stool
Double zone of hemolysis on blood agar. Laboratory diagnosis: Pathogenesis salmonella gram negative rod shaped bacteria
classified TO enterobacteriaceae
-non-typhoidal salmonella
-S. typhimurium,
-S. enteritidis (mostly cause food poisoning) present in the egg yolk passes through the epithelial cells terminal portion of the small intestine. Multiplication of bacteria in the lamina propria
Release of LPS causes fever. Inflammation causes release of prostaglandins from epithelial cells cause electrolytes to flow into lumen of the intestine. Waterflows into lumen in response to osmotic imbalance resulting in diarrhea. Homogenized food is cultured in selenite F broth incubated at 37oC overnight and growth identified by biochemical tests and slide agglutination test. FOOD POISONING Keep all kitchen surfaces always clean. The golden rules for prevention of food poisoning: Choose foods processed for safety -Wash hands repeatedly. -Eat cooked food immediately.
-Store cooked food carefully.
- Reheat cooked food thoroughly protect foods from insects, rodents and other animals. Thank you Omnia El_sayed Al_khyate
Sherine Magdy Dager
Asmaa Gamal Salah
Shimaa Nassef
Asmaa Gomaa
Abeer Elseteha
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