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The Mughal empire

AP world 9 weeks project
by

Fatema Monowar

on 7 June 2013

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Transcript of The Mughal empire

The Mughal Empire Emperors "Raja" Mughal & Other Islamic Empires Women & Politics 2 of Akbars Contributions AGRICULTURE Decline of Mughal Mughal Empire & its Legacy... Babur "the tiger" *The Rulers Mother and chief wife enjoyed special
privileges & authority.
*Women had prominent role in politics.
-Emperor Jahangir was content to let his wife
Nur Jahan run the government.
-Even Aurangzeb listened to his daughters
political advise. Akbars Divine Faith *They have marked there space in history and
didn't leave without a fight.
- They resisted cultural influence form the
Western world.
-They preferred political & social stability to
the risks that foreign cultural innovations
might bring. The "Mongol" dynasty in India ~ Zahir al-Din Muhammed
~ a Chaghatai turk descent of Chinggis Khan & Tamerlane
~ First appered in Nothern india *His main goal was to transform his inheritance into a glorious central Asian Empire. ~He focused on India
-using gunpowder weapons, artillery & firearms
he invaded Delhi taking over in 1526 -Even with the humid climate he remained in India to lead his ambition of a glorious empre like Tamerlane.
-By death in 1530 he built a loose knit empire
~from Kabul through Punjab to borders of Bengal (1523-1530) Akbar " the great" (1556-1605) -Babur's Grandson
*Brilliant, Charismatic ruler
-took power by his own hands
~He killed Adham Khan a powerful figure at
imperial court & commander of army. *Created a centralized administrative, an
absolutist government.
*Strict yet he was reflective man deeply
interested in religion & philosophy. *Pursued policy of religious toleration as an
effort to reduce tension between Hindus &
Muslims.
*Encouraged the elaboration of a syncretic
religion called "Divine Faith".
-Which focused attention on emperor as ruler of
all religious, ethnic, social group of India. Aurangzeb "world-seizer" (1659-1707) *Pushed authority into the Southern India,
extending Mughal rule to the entire
subcontinent except a small region.
- He faced many rebellions & religious tension
between Hindus & Muslims. * He was a devout muslim which is why he broke
Akbar's policy of religious toleration.
-demolished several famous Hindu temples
replacing them with mosques.
-imposed tax on Hindus in effort to encourage
conversion to Islam. One of the destroyed Hindu temple *Military creations
*Authority of dynasty derived from personal piety & military prowess of rulers.
*Devotion to Islam encouraged rulers to extend their faith to the new land. The Mughal
Empire The Safavid
Empire The Ottoman
Empire *associated closely with famous Sufi. *Autocratic: emperors imposed their will on the state. Steppe Traditions & Mughal *Akbar: issued a decree in 1579, claiming broad
authority in religious matters, promoting his own
eclectic religion, which glorified the emperor as
much as Islam.
-this brought succession problems such as
Family controversies: conflicts among Mughal princes & rebellions of sons against fathers. -Shah Jahan's devotion to his wife Mumtaz Mahal is world-famous. Shah Jahan Mumtaz Mahal Taj Mahal Its an exquisite example of Mughal architecture. *Major crops: Wheat Rice * Not affected by american crops. *imports of tobacco
& coffee were very
popular. TRADE * Mughal were less attentive to foreign or maritime trading. *Permitted stations for English, French, &dutch trading companies. Religion Diversity Most subjects were Hindus. But large members of Muslims lived there. Along side with small communities of Jains. Communities of Zoroastrians. Communities of Christians. And devotes of Syncretic faiths such as Sikhism. *To bring India together he supported early
Sikhs who combined Islam & Hinduism in a
new syncretic faith. A Sikh Temple *He tried elaborating his "divine Faith"
- it was strictly monotheistic, tolerant of
Hinduism & drew from Zoroastrianism in
efforts to bridge gaps between Mughal India's
many cultural & religious communities.
-Considered himself "lord of wisdom" who would
guide his subjects to understand the worlds
creator god. Fatehpur Sikri Mughal Capital created by Akbar Combined Islamic style with Indian elements. Got abandoned due to bad water supplies problems that broke the Mughal empire Aurangzeb exhausted the treasuries
of the empire without making
fresh resources available. Imperialism begins... Printing Press Military Decline Aurangzebs policies provoked Hindus...causing a conflicted India. Economic Difficulty Mughal encouraged the establishment of Dutch & English trading outpost & welcomed expansion of their business in India *Mughal experienced military decline due to no
military technological improvements.
_ So they purchase European weapons in large
numbers. Slowly Mughal India caught on, but still displayed no interest in westernizing until it became prominent after the British colonialism in Bengal in the 18th century. Their Architecture The emperors By:Fatema Monowar
PD 1
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