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TEACHING NARRATIVE TEXTS IN AN EFL LEARNING CONTEXT
Transcript of TEACHING NARRATIVE TEXTS IN AN EFL LEARNING CONTEXT
WHAT IS A GENRE?
TEACHING HOW TO WRITE A NARRATIVE
“Análisis de las propiedades estructurales
y lingüísticas de géneros textuales frecuentemente encontrados en libros de texto para la enseñanza del inglés como lengua extranjera."
Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, UNCuyo, directed by Professor Cristina Boccia.
a) To enhance the way in which a particular genre or text type is treated as a pedagogic object, that is, as an object that is to be taught and learnt in the EFL classroom for it to be effectively comprehended and effectively produced by students.
b) To develop sample units in which genres such narratives, movie reviews and service encounters constitute the pivot point on which all the other activities related to vocabulary building, grammar work and pronunciation revolve.
a) to briefly describe the theoretical background on which this genre analysis was based
b) the treatment that this particular genre, “narratives”, has in a lesson in an EFL textbook
c) to show how we designed a new revisited lesson in which we suggested in detail the way in which the lesson can unfold so that it moves smoothly and effectively towards the production of a text by the students.
Martin describes a text or a
as a staged, purposeful, social activity that we engage in as speakers of the language. According to this, a genre has a
. He also states that the purpose of a genre is
FULFILLED IN STAGES
, that is, step by step as the social activity unfolds.
This pedagogy is mainly based on the
that these authors propose for the development of what is known as genre literacy in education.
The cycle frame that was developed can guide our teaching of texts from an initial approach to the subject matter they will be writing about, through an exploration of the text they are asked to write, to the joint writing of a first sample text, to the final independent construction of the text. This approach to the independent production of a text suggests that creativity depends mainly on the control of the genre and that without this students can´t possibly produce creative independent writings.
Martin & Rothery (1990)
Rothery & Stenglin(1997)
Rothery & Stenglin (1997)
Martin & Rose (2007)
TEACHING - LEARNING CYCLE
It is a text that deals with and evaluates problematic events and their outcome. It presents a disruption in an established order and the final return to some kind of stability once the characters have dealt with the crisis.
Narratives have the common social purpose of entertaining and of initiating us into the values of a culture. One distinctive feature of narratives is the conflict the protagonist has to face in order to come back to normality.
A story typically begins with an ORIENTATION in which a normal order of things, a ‘usuality’ is typically established. We are told about the characters, at least the main ones, about some of their attributes and habits, about the setting in time and place that is relevant to the story.
This initial situation that is typically presented in the orientation will be disrupted by an event or events that upset the normal order of things. Some aspect of the characters´ life as they knew it will be disturbed. This constitutes the COMPLICATION.
A critical element of narratives, typically interspersed throughout the complication, is what we will call the EVALUATION stage. Its function is to provide an evaluation of the problematic situation. We are typically told how the character is affected by this situation.
The moment in the story that follows the crisis point is the RESOLUTION, whether it actually occurs or fails to. At this point the narrative typically returns to some sort of stability, often coming back full circle to where we got started. A new, altered order of things is restored.
The CODA is usually the point, the theme, the MESSAGE; That is, the MORAL of the story This is not the case in all narratives, particularly in those for adults in which the point of the story is typically left implicit in the story for the reader to unbury it himself.
In conclusion, we may now state that our main concern is to determine if the genre itself is a key TEACHING- LEARNING OBJECT. Lessons often include good, appealing texts that function as useful contexts for the presentation and practice of grammar or vocabulary. However, the lesson does not always lead students step by step towards a better understanding of how texts work.
Our own scaffolding for the reorganization of the lesson will be the genre teaching-learning cycle. In fact, we will follow the stages in the cycle so that we are sure our students:
• Feel comfortable with the subject matter that the text is about.
• Get all the practice they need to become familiarized with the generic structure of text and the language that is used.
• Build their confidence by writing a text jointly first and receiving all the feedback they may need.
• Move on to write the text independently.
Examining a lesson
Revisiting the lesson
ONE OCTOBER EVENING