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Cuban Missile Crisis
Transcript of Cuban Missile Crisis
1962 Background Paving the way... Cuba - large island, 160 km from Florida which lies in the southern USA US ally - the US government backed a dictator named Batista Was home to many large American owned businesses. Also supported a large American naval base (Guantanamo) Fidel Castro Cuban Communist politician
Studied at University of Havana
1953: Lead failed attack on Moncada Barracks
Traveled to Mexico to organize overthrow of Batista's government President Kennedy adressing the American nation on Cuban Missile Crisis Early Containment Cuba and US maintained frosty relationship without direct comfrontation
Castro took over American-owned businesses but allowed USA to keep naval base
Assured American residents safety
Summer, 1960: Recieved arms from Soviet Union 1959 - 1961 January 1961 US broke of diplomatic relations with Cuba
Catro interprets this as a sign of the US preparing to invade
US no longer willing to tolerate Soviet satellite in its own "sphere of influence" April 1961 US supplied 1400 anti-Castro exiles with arms, equipment and transport in order to invade Cuba.
Exiles were met by 20,000 Cuban troops
The invasion failed Failed invasion indicated a weakness of the American government.
However it also triggered suspicion of the US policy in Castro and Khurshchev. Further Development The Bay of PIgs After Bay of Pigs: Soveit arms flooded into Cuba
May 1962: Soveit Union announces publicly that it was supplying Cuba with arms.
By July 1962: Cuba had best-equipped army in Latin America Cuba - 1962 USA - 1962 Watched what was happening in Cuba anxiously
Tolerated the supply of arms by Soveit Union
September: Kennedy's Intelligence Departement calmed the vexation saying it did not believe the USSR would supply Cuba with nuclear weapons.
September 11: Kennedy warned the USSR from making Cuba an "offensice military Base"
September 11: USSR assured the USA that they had no intentions and no need to do so. Sunday, 14th October 1962 The October Crisis American spy plane (U-2) went on expidition over Cuba and managed to take detailed footage of missile sites in Cuba.
Military experts came to the conclusion that these were nuclear missile sites built by the USSR
Further photo reconnaisance revealed that some sites were already supplied with missiles
Other American spy planes reported 20 Soviet ships carrying missiles heading towards Cuba. Kennedy's
Options Surgical Air
Attack Do Nothing Invasion Diplomatic
Pressure Blockade For: To avoid conflict
Against: Incase of failure -
Sign of weakness For: Shows US's sincerety yet no direct form of war
Against: Would not solve main problem For: Would get rid of missiles and Castro
Against: Guarantee an quivalent Soviet response For: Destroy missiles before use
Against: No guarantee of destructing all sites, Would cause Soviet casualties, Immoral. For: American's nuclear powers greatr than Soviet Union
Against: Sign of weakness Motives? Kennedy informed about missile built up Kennedy decides on blockade Kennedy announces blockade Kennedy recieves letter from Khrushchev denying the presence of nuclear
missiles and announcing a disregarding of the blockade The blockade begins. Soviet ships approache blockade zone but then abruptly turn around Yet new photographs reveal that work on missile bases continues to proceed rapidly In a personal letter to Kennedy, Khrushchev admits to presence of missiles in Cuba and claims that they are purely defensive In a second letter Khrushchev proposes that in order for the USSR to remove the missiles from Cuba, the US would have to withraw its missiles from Turkey. Kennedy cannot accept this condition.
American U-2 plan is shot down over Cuba. Though advised to launch an immediate repisal attack on Cuba, Kennnedy delays further action. Kennedy ignores Khruchev's second letter but accepts the first proposal with the condition that if Soveit union does not withdraw, the US will launch an attack. Khruchev accepts Kennedy's compromise and gives new order to return missiles to Soviet Union. Kennedy also removes American nuclear missiles from Turkey - but this is kept secret from the public. Main Events What Happened Next ? 20 October 22 October 23 October 16 October 24 October 25 October 26 October 28 october 27 October Cartoon published in 1962 Why did the Soveit Union decide to bring missiles to Cuba? To test the USA's strenght To close the "missile gap" between USA and USSR To defend and protect Cuba To challange USA and
start nuclear war. To haggle with the USA. 1959: Fidel Castro overthrew American dictator Batista. Outcome Kennedy came out of the crisis with a greatly improved reputation in his own country and throughout the West He had stood up to Khurshchev and forced him to back down Khurshchev was able to claim a personal triumph as Cuba remained a useful ally in "Uncle Sam's backyard"
Khurshchev also had to face embarrassment. In the public's view he had backed-down from a crisis he initiated
Most historians would agree this partially led to his downfall in the USSR two years later. The Cuban missile crisis forced the two superpowers to improve their relations
Both nations realized how close their game of brinkmanship had almost ended in nuclear war.
A permanent 'hot line' phone link direct from the White House to the Kremlin was set up In 1963 the US and the USSR signed a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.
Didn't stop the production of weapons, but limited tests Cuba stayed Communist and highly armed. However, nuclear missiles were withdrawn under UN supervision Castro was very upset with the way things panned out, since he had no involvement in negotiations between the USSR and the US
Soviet-Cuban relations deteriorated after the crisis Source