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MICROBIOLOGY

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on 2 July 2014

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Transcript of MICROBIOLOGY

II. ARCHAEA


- cell walls, if present, lack peptidoglycan

Fungi -
unicellular yeasts, multicellular molds & mushrooms

III. EUKARYA
Protists -
slime mold,
protozoa, algae
1st Compound Microscope
Zaccharias Janssen - spectacles maker
- poor quality
- coudn't magnify microbes
- provided basis for making new &
better versions of the MX.

1830 - Joseph Jackson Lister
- developed a better compound
microscope
- Various improvements to his type of
microscope became the basis of
modern compound microscopes

Before the advent of microbiology, our old folks believed that unexplained death or illnesses were a form of punishment for an individual's crimes or misdeeds


WHEN?
Around 1600

What? Invention of the microscope:

Simple microscope - Magnifying glass (300x)

By whom?

Anton van Leeuvenhoek






CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISM:
DEVELOPMENT
MICROBIOLOGY
branch of Biology which deals with the study of minute organisms not visible to the naked eye.
Logus (Logy) -
Study

- based on the cellular organization
of organism
I. BACTERIA

- cell walls contain
peptidoglycan

Plants -
mosses, ferns, conifers & flowering plants
Animals
- sponge, worms, insects, vertebrates

- quite new
- still hundreds of years in
existence but DNA of M.tb was
discovered in a 3,000 year old Egyptian mummy
Micro - tiny
Bio - Life
MICROBIOLOGY
FIRST OBSERVATIONS
1665 - Robert Hooke
- using his crude microscope
discovered life's smallest
structural units = "cells"
specimen: "cork"
- development of the cell
theory = "all living
things are made up of
cells"

- subsequent investigations
into the structure & functions of cells
were based on this theory

Anton van Leeuwenhoek - 1st to observe
live microbes

Specimen: Rainwater, liquid with soaked
peppercorns, teeth scrapings = representations of bacteria and protozoa.


THEORY OF BIOGENESIS
after 20 years

- Lazzaro Spallanzani, Italian
scientist, suggested that
microorganisms from the air
probably entered the Needham
solutions after they were boiled

- demonstrated that the nutrient
fluids heated after being
sealed did not develop microbial
growth!

NEEDHAM argued that
"vital force" was necessary
for spontaneous generation!

- destroyed by the heat & was
kept out of the flasks by the seals

Laurent Lavoisier - showed the
importance of oxygen to life!

Spallanzani's observations-criticized

(O2 is vital to support microbial life!)

1st Compound Microscope.
Zaccharias Janssen - spectacles maker
- poor quality
- coudn't magnify microbes
- provided basis for making new &
better versions of the MX.

1830 - Joseph Jackson Lister
- developed a better compound
microscope
- Various improvements to his type of
microscope

Before the advent of microbiology, our old falles believed that unexplained death or illnesses were a form of puneshment for an individual's crimes or misdeeds


WHEN?
Around 1600

What? Invention of the microscope:

Simple microscope - Magnifying glass (300x)

By whom?

Anton van Leeuvenhoek






DEVELOPMENT
1858 - Rudolf Virchow - challenged spontaneous generation with the concept of BIOGENESIS

- Living cells can arise only from pre-existing
living cells


SPONTANEOUS GENERATION VS. BIOGENESIS

- resolved by Louis Pasteur - French Scientist
- demonstrated that microorganisms are present in the air & can contaminate sterile solutions but air itself does not create microbes.
EXPERIMENT:
Short-necked flasks beef broth-
boiled contents
- some left open & allowed to
cool = contaminated with microbes
- some sealed after boiling = free of microbes

:. Microbes in air were the agents in contaminating non-living matter e.g. Needham's broths.

- broth in open-ended long-necked
flasks & bent the neck into S-shaped curve

= boiled and cooked did not decay, no signs of life even after months




SPONTANEOUS GENERATION
OPPONENT
Ok! Disproved -
SPONTANEOUS GENERATION
but still, the animalcules
(Leeuvenhoek) could possibly
generate from non-living
materials.
= demonstrated conclusively that
microbial life can be distroyed
by heat & that methods can be
devised to block the access of airbone microorganisms to nutrient environments

= Basis of Aseptic Techniques
- prevent contamination by unwanted microbes.
- Standard practice in medical procedures.
- You should learn!

= scientists & philosophers
believed that some forms of life
can arise spontaneously from
npn-living matter = spontaneous
generation
e.g. toads, snakes, mice =moist
soil
flies = manure
maggots (larvae of thin)
= decaying corpses
1668 : Francisco Redi (Italian
Physician
= demonstrated that maggots do not come
from decaying meat.
= 3 jars with decaying meat, sealed them
tightly and another 3 jars left open

RESULT:
maggots appeared
in the open jars.

no maggots in the
sealed containers

Antagonists not convinced-fresh air was needed for spontaneous generation

2nd experiment: 3 jars covered
with fine net in stead of being
sealed so air was present
result: no maggots
EXPERIMENT
: Short-necked
flasks with beef broth –
boiled contents
 Some left open & allowed to cool
 Contaminated with microbes.
 Some sealed after boiling = free of Microbes

Microbes present in the air were the agents in
Non-living matter e.g. Needham broths

.: broth in open ended
long-necked flask by & bent the neck into S-shaped curves

= boiled & cooled did not decay and showed no signs of life even after months

= design allowed air to pass into the flask but the curved need trapped airborne microbes.

=showed that microorganism can
be present in non-living matter
( solid, liquid, air)
= demonstrated conclusively that microbial life can be destroyed by heat, that methods can be devised to block the access of airborne microorganisms to nutrient environments.
Basis of ASEPTIC TECHNIQUES
=
prevent contamination of
unwanted microbes
=
standard practice in medical
procedures
=
1st & most important things
that medical practitioners
should learn

SPONTANEOUS GENERATION
= probably did occur on Primitive
Earth - when life 1st began but
they agreed that this DOES NOT
happen under today's environmental
conditions
GOLDEN AGE OF
MICROBIOLOGY
1857-1914 = Rapid Advances led to the
(57 years) establishment of microbiology
with a science

1) Agents diseases
2) Role of immunity in the prevention &
cure of disease
3) Chemical Activities of microorganisms
were studied
4) Improved the techniques for microscopy
& culturing microorganisms
5) Developed raccines & surgical
techniques

FERMENTATION & PASTEURIZATION
Fermentation

= used in making wine
& beer (yeast)

= souring & spoilage
are caused by different
microorganisms called
bacteria in the
presence of air can
change the alcohol in
the beverage into
vinegar (HAC)
Pasteurization

= application of heat

(just enough to kill
the bacteria which
cause spoilage)
THE GERM THEORY OF DISEASE

Yeast play a crucial role in FERMENTATION
1st link between the activity of a microorganism
& physical & chemical changes in organic, materials
alerted the scientists to the possibility that microorganisms might have similar relationships with
plants & animals = might cause disease = GERM THEORY OF DISEASE
1835 - Agostino Bassi, amateur microscopist,
proved that another silkworm disease was
caused by a fungus
1865 - Pasteur was called to help fight silkworm
disease, using the data provided by Bassi, found that the more recent infection was now caused by a protozon & he developed a method for recognizing afflicted silkworm moths
1860's - Josep Lister, an English surgeon, applied
the germ theory to medical procedures
- used phenol (carbolic acid) in the treatment of
surgical wounds
- one of the earliest medical attempts to control
infections
- his finding proved that microorganisms cause
surgical wound infections
1876 -Robert Koch, German Physician proved that
bacteria actually cause disease
-discovered Baccillus onthracis, a rod-shape
bacterium which caused the deaths of cattles & sheep in Europe
Koch postulate - sequence of experimental steps for directly relating a
specific disease
- provided a framework for the study of the etiology of any
infectious disease

Show Koch's postulates:

Vaccination


May 4, 1976 - Edward jenner, British physician made an experiment to protect people from smallpox
- inoculated a cow pox-contaminated needle (scropings) into healthy 8-yr old volunteer
became mildly sick but recovered & never again contacted cowpox or smallpox.

1880 - Pasteur discovered how vaccinations work

1840's - Igmaz Semmelweis, Hungarian physician
demonstrated that physician who did not disinfect their hands routinely transmitted infectious (puerperal or childbirth fever) from one OB patient to another (HARDWORKING)


China
– physicians had immunized patients by running scales from drying pustales, grounded it to a fine powder & inserted into the nose of the person
HOW?
Discovered that fowl cholem bacterium lost its virulence after it was grown in the laboratory for long period but it is other microorganisms with decreased virulence-able to induce immunity against subsequent infections by its virulent counter parts
First Synthetic Drugs
1910-Paul Ehrlich, German physician, discovered
SALVARSAN,an arsenic derivative effective for treatment of syphilis {before, chemical quinine was extracted from South American tree was used by the Spanish conquistadores to treat Malaria

Late 1930's - researchers developed several other
synthetic drugs that could destroy microorganisms, mostly derivative of dyes
- sulfonamides (sulfa-drugs ) synthesized
(UTI)

1928-Penicillin was discovered by Alexander
Flemming, Scotish physician& bacteriologist
- P. notatum - fungus

- 1940's tested & mass produced

MODERN DEVELOPMENTS

1997 - discovery of Thiomargarita namibiensis
by Heide Schulz
- large bacterium, enough to be seen with
the naked eye
- unusual size, consumes H2S
- toxic to mud - dwelling

Bacteriology
MODERN DEVELOPMENTS
- Coccidioides immitis- caused infections are
increased ten-fold due to climatic & environmental
changes

Mycology
cause what?
new techniques for diagnosis & treatment of fungal infections are currently being investigated

new pararitic diseases in humans are being discovered as laborers become exposed while clearing rain forests

Parasitology
previously unknown parasitic diseases are being found in patients
whose immune systems have been suppressed by organ transplants, CA chemotherapy and AIDS.

IMMUNOLOGY
- vaccines are
commercially made available

VIROLOGY
-
different viruses are being discovered – Merscov,Ebola
Development of a set of new methods called Recombinant DNA technology has revolutionized research & practical applications in all of areas of microbiology

SIGNIFICANCE/PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
Recycling vital elements – C,N,O,S,P -microbes are responsible for converting these elements into forms that can be utilized by higher organisms
bacteria & fungi - return CO2 to the atmosphere when they decompose organic wastes & dead plants & animals *only bacteria can convert Nitrogen naturally into usable form
SEWAGE TREATMENT
Use of beneficial microbes (Zoogloea)
BIOREMEDIATION - using microbes to clean up pollutants from underground wells, chemical spills, toxic waste sites, oil spills

- Bacterial enzymes - used in household detergents o remove spots from clothing

- Bacillus thuringensis - genetically - engineered to produce protein crystals that are toxic to the digestive system of insects/pests
INSECT /PEST CONTROL

Biotechnology - commercial use of microorganism to produce some common food and chemicals.

thru : Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA technology)

Expand the potential bacteria, viruses, fungi to produce natural protein, vaccines, enzymes

medical use

= GENE Therapy (1990)- inserting a missing gene or replacing a defective gene in human cells

used to treat patients with adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA) - cells of the immune system are missing or inactive

cause of severe combined immunodefeciency disease (SCID)

Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy (muscle-destroying) disease

cystic fibrosis - a disease of the secreting portions of
the respiratory passages, pancreas, salivary glands, & sweat glands
MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGY & GENETIC ENGINEERING
LDL – receptor deficiency – low density lipoprotein receptors are defective & LDL can’t enter cells. LDL remains in blood ↑ the risk of atherosclerosis & coronary artery disease because it leads to fatty plaque formation in blood vessels

Future: Hemophilia
Diabetes
Sickle – cell disease

Applied to agriculture
o pest control
o Improve the appearance , shelf-life
flavor of produce
o Drought resistance
o Increased temperature tolerance of
crops

Other Significance

Normal Flora:
o Benefit = protection for disease =
overgrowth of harmful microbes
o Synthesis of Vitamin K

RECOMBINANT DNA TECH

EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES:
1) West Nile Encephalitis
- caused by West Nile Virus

- produce encephalitis (inflam’n of the brain)

- first diagnosis: West Nile region of UGAnDA 1937
1999 : First appeared in New York City
2002 : 3559 people infected in 37 states

-now established in nonmigratory birds in 42 states,
carried by birds to horses to humans by mosquitoes

- may have arrived in the US via an infected traveler or bird on board a ship
Knowledge on INFECTIOUS DISEASEs & ITS TREATMENT & PREVENTION
2) 1996 -> prions – cause : Bovine Spongiform
Encephalopathy

Mad Cow Disease

Source : cattle food prepared from infected sheep (herbivores)

+ protein for enhanced / improved growth

: Creutzfeldt Jacob Disease

2002, UK reported 138 human cases related to
BSE
Knowledge on INFECTIOUS DISEASEs & ITS TREATMENT & PREVENTION
3) Bloody Diarrhea – E.coli 0157: H7 (1982) –first recognized
- one of the leading causes of diarrhea worldwide

4) 1995 – flesh – eating bacteria IGAS (Invasive Group A
Streptococcus)
- increasing rates of IGAS in the US, Scandinavia,
England, Wales

5) Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever – 1995 – first seen in a lab tech in Cargo (Zaire)
- had blody diarhea, fever
- had surgery for a suspected perforated bowel -> started
Hemorrhaging then his blood began clotting in his
vessels
- H-H transmission via close personal contact with
infectious blood or other body fluids or tissue
1st isolated in 1976 from human in Congo

1994 – single case Ivory Coast

1989 – 1996 outbreaks among monkeys
imported to the US from the Phils caused by another Ebola virus not associated with human disease.

EHF Virus – not yet discovered the natural
reservoir

6) HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME
– 1993 – 2 people in the same household died
within 5days of each other
- Sin Nombre virus from deer mice

7) CRYTOSPORIDIOSIS – diarhheal illness transmitted
via water - pools, drinking, hosp. supplies

8) AIDS – HIV – 1981 – died of Pneumocystis
pneumonia
- severely weakend immune system
- others: Kaposi’s sarcoma – young homosexual men
- hemophiliacs, IV drug users

2002 – 800, 000 in the US were diagnosed, 50% had died 40 M worldwide est. 14,000 new infections / day

Destroys CD4 lymphocytes (cells defense)
o Spread them – sexual intercourse
o Contaminated needles
o Mother to the child
o Blood Transfusion

1997 – AIDS diagnosis began increasing among women & minorities

9) 2001 – Inhalation & Anthrax – intentional release of a
bacterium thru mail
- biological weapon

10) H1N1
11) MersCov
THANK
YOU!

1745 = John Needham, an Englishman

= discovered that microorganisms
present in the broths, even if he
heated it before pouring them
into covered flasks = cooled broths
were teeming with microbes.
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