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The Spirit of Reform: The Second Great Awakening
Transcript of The Spirit of Reform: The Second Great Awakening
Rachel Natsume King Corn 1. Fewer manpower
-Laborers replaced by machines ( this contributes to the economic state: many people out of work).
-better for conmanies because they are paid by the government to produce; also they don't have to pay workers in the field
-machines produce faster than laborers. The Second Great Awakening people gathered in big white tents to hear a message of hope In New England, the renewed interest in religion inspired a wave of social activism. In western New York, the spirit of revival encouraged the emergence of new denominations. In the Appalachian region of Kentucky and Tennessee, the revival strengthened the Methodists and the Baptists, and spawned a new form of religious expression –camp meetings. Leaders urged Christians to let themselves be "filled with the Spirit of God." The listeners prayed, shouted and sang for hours. Preachers told people that they could gain forgiveness for their sins. For example they could do good works. Transcendentalism philosophy Based on the belief that knowledge is not limited to and solely derived from experience and observation. The solution to human problems lies in the free development of individual emotions. Reality exists only in the world of the spirit. What a person observes in the physical world are only appearances, or impermanent reflections of the world of spirit. People learn about the physival world through their senses and understanding. They learn about the world of the spirit through another power, known as REASON. Transcendentalists believed reason as the personal, independent, and intuitive capacity know what is absolutely true. In the U.S. trancendentalism became both philosophy and a literary, religious, and social movement. Ralph Waldo Emerson was the leading American Transendentalist. April 27, 1882 (aged 78) He believed that every human had unlimited potental. He taught that the physial world is secondary to the spiritual world. Emerson believed that people should learn as much as possible through observation and science. However, he insisted that they should adjust their lives through reason. Transcendentalists believed that society needs to be reformed. They said that in order to learn what is right, a person must reject custom and social codes and rely on REASON. They also thought that organized churches of orthodox Christianity was in the way of the relationship between a person and God. Also, they adviced that people should reject the authority of Christianity and gain knowledge of God through reason. Transcendenatalists never really much multiplied in groups, but have influenced American history and literature. Other leading Transcendentalists were: Bronson Alcott, Margaret Fuller, Theodore Parker, and Henry David Thoreau. It was these types of transcendentalist beliefs that allowed Thomas Cole to reflect on nature and begin painting landscapes when he first traveled
up the Hudson River by steamer in 1825. Transcendentalists believed in peace and that it was best to reach God through belief in nature. The American Scholar Famous address made in Harvard stating out that independent scholars must interpret and lead their culture through nature, books and action. The first major revival movement in the U.S. was the Great Awakening, which began during the 1730's. Model Communities George Ripley Transcendentalists tried to create perfect communities. 1841: Brook Farm in Boston One of the leaders during this religious movement was, George Whitefield. He set the foundations of the United Methodist Church. Residents at Brook Farm tried to live in "brotherly cooperation" instead of fighting with one another. They tried to live by supporting themselves through farming, teaching and making clothes. 1839 Methodist camp meeting Communities like these didn't last for a long time but showed an expression that people of good could create an ideal society. During this period, optimistic ideas began to spread around.