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Monarchy In Afghanistan
Transcript of Monarchy In Afghanistan
A monarchy is a government ruled by one person, such as a king or queen.
Afghanistan's National anthem..
In absolute monarchy, the king or the queen have the absolute power.
The head person has very less power, the country has a constitution.
It's origin in Afghanistan:
• In 1709, Mir Wais Hotak and his Afghan tribal chiefs freed their land from Persian rule and declared it to be the Hotaki Empire.
The Hotaki Empire:
After a long series of wars, this empire was eventually replaced by the Durrani Afghan Empire that was founded by Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1747.
The Durrani Empire lasted from 1747 to 1842 with nine emperors.
The Durrani Empire:
The Barakzai Empire:
The last Afghan Empire was the Barakzai Empire with fourteen emperors including the “Khans”, Muhammad Nadir Shah and Muhammad Zahir Shah.
Muhammad Nadir Shah:
Muhammad Nadir Shah became the King of Afghanistan on October 15, 1929.
On November 8, 1933, he was shot and killed by a teenager named Abdul Khaliq Hazara.
Habībullāh Kalakānī was Emir of Afghanistan from January to October 1929 after deposing Amānullāh Khān with the help of various Afghan tribes who opposed modernization of Afghanistan.
He was himself overthrown and executed on 3 November 1929 by the army of Mohammed Nadir Khan with help of the Afghan National Army.
Amanullah Khan was the King of Afghanistan from February 28, 1919 to January 14, 1929.
He was the first Afghan ruler who attempted to modernize Afghanistan on western designs.
However, he did not succeed in this because of a popular uprising by Habibullah Kalakani and his followers.
On 14 January 1929, Amanullah abdicated and fled to then neighboring British India while Afghanistan fell into a civil war. From British India he went to Europe where he died in Zürich, Switzerland, in 1960.
After becoming king, Mohammad Nadir fought hard against people who wanted to restore King Amanullah to the throne.
He also reversed many of the modernization plans set forth by King Amanullah after becoming king.
After becoming king favored up to various religious extremists and pinned ethnic groups against one another.
Muhammad Zahir Shah:
Muhammad Zahir Shah was Nadir Shah's son and became the King on his father's death.
He was the King until 1973 when Muhammad Daoud Khan, his cousin, took over his seat in his absence.
He was the last King of Afghanistan.
In 1973, while Mohammed Zahir Shah was in Italy for medical treatment, former Prime Minister, Mohammed Daoud Khan, staged a coup and established a republican government.
The public was happy when the young repulic as Daud Khan proclaim Afghanistan a republic and himself as president.
He was barred from returning to Afghanistan during Soviet-backed Communist rule in the late 1970s.
On April 18, 2002, Zahir Shah returned to Kabul after 29 years in exile.
In 2002, while the country was under NATO occupation, Zahir Shah returned to Afghanistan to open the Loya Jirga.
Zahir Shah publicly stepped aside at the orders of the United States.
In the Loya Jirga, Hamid Karzai became the new President of Afghanistan through a consensus.
In 2004, formal elections were held and Karzai became the first democratically elected leader of Afghanistan.
Zahir Shah attended the December 7, 2004 swearing in of Hamid Karzai as President of Afghanistan.
On 23 July 2007, he died in the compound of the presidential palace in Kabul after prolonged illness.
In his final years, he was frail and required a microphone pinned to his collar so that his faint voice could be heard.
His death was announced on national television by President Karzai.
From 1979 to 1989, Afghanistan was under Soviet Union's control.
From 1989 to 1992, the Afghan Civil War began, with the Afghan communist government (PDPA) fight against the Mujahideen.
After the fall of the communist Najibullah-regime in 1992, the Afghan political parties agreed on a peace and power-sharing agreement.
In 1996, the Taliban took control of the land.
In 2001, the U.S bombings started and the was still continues....
"I will accept the responsibility of head of state if that is what the Loya Jirga demands of me, but I have no intention to restore the monarchy. I do not care about the title of king. The people call me Baba and I prefer this title."
Relation to The Kite Runner:
In The Kite Runner, we read the scene where Hassan and Amir hear the shootings when Daoud Khan threw over King Zahir Shah in the coup (1973) and Ali told them that everything was fine and they were just “shooting ducks”.
In 1979, the Soviet Army entered Afghanistan, this is the point when Baba and Amir leave Afghanistan.
Throughout the ten years of Soviet occupation, internal Muslim forces put up a resistance. Farid and his father are examples of these mujahedins or men engaged in war on the side of Islam.
In 1996, the Taliban took control of Kabul. After so many years of insecurity and violence, the people welcomed the takeover. Rahim Khan remembers, "... We all celebrated in 1996 when the Taliban rolled in and put an end to the daily fighting."
Rahim Khan describes the fear in Kabul during the civil war and remembers, "The infighting between the factions was fierce ....Our ears became accustomed to the rumble of gunfire........Kabul in those days ... Was as close as you could get to that proverbial hell on earth."
The end of The Kite Runner occurs in 2002, when a provisional government was in place. It was not until 2004 that the current president of Afghanistan, Hamid Karzai, was elected.
Thank You for your Attention.!
Pass the Ball!
Muhammad Nadir Shah came back from France to throw Kalakani off for Amanullah.
He executed Kalakani by hanging in public.
He started using propaganda against Amanullah, so the public would turn against him.
Since he was the General, he was the best suited to be the King.