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Drenching and Equipment Maintenance Training Course

Interactive training course for agriculture students
by

Natalie Atkinson

on 7 May 2014

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Transcript of Drenching and Equipment Maintenance Training Course

DRENCHING AND EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE TRAINING COURSE
Drenching basics
Why do we drench?
Improve stock health and reduce losses
Improve production
Increase profit

What if we don't drench?
Stock susceptible to disease due to compromised immune system
Reduced production - weight, product

The cost of not drenching
Cost to farm - Production decrease, Prolonged maintenance feeding, Treating disease.
Cost to economy - Agriculture industry, Exports
Anthelmintics
What are they? Drugs that expel parasitic worms

What do they do? Mode of action, kill or maim parasites

Narrow Spectrum
Praziquantel - Tapeworm
Clorsulon - Adult Liver Fluke
Triclabendazole - Immature and adult Liver Fluke
Broad Spectrum
Benzimidazole -BZ's, white drenches
Levamisole - clear drenches, resistance
Macrocyclic lactones - internal and external parasites
Parasites
Who are we dealing with?

Two types - External (Flies, Ticks, Mites, Lice)
Internal (Roundworms, Flatworms and Tapeworms)

Important internal parasites in NZ:
Haemonchus
Teladorsagia (aka, sheep Ostertagia)
Ostertagia
Trichostrongylus
Cooperia
Nematodirus
Lungworm
Tapeworm
Liver flukes
Drench Resistance
Increasing problem in NZ

What is it? The development of worms that are not effected by drench.

How is it caused? Naturally, exposure to chemical

Refugia: Dilute resistant population and reduce resistance

Increased drench resistance: under-dosing, minimal refugia, product selection, management, time between drenching, dosing when not required
Basic Direct Life Cycle
Roundworms
Haemonchus - Barber's Pole worm
Roundworms
Teladorsagia / Ostergia - brown stomach worm
Roundworms
Trichostrongylus - wireworm or hairworm
Roundworms
Cooperia
Roundworms
Nematodirus - Thin necked intestinal worm
Roundworms
Dictyocaulus - Lungworm
Tapeworms (Cestodes)
Flatworms (Trematodes)
Fasciola Hepatica - Liver Fluke
Reading Drench Labels
Select a drench product from ones pictured or from the retail shelf in a veterinary clinic or rural supply store. Using the drug reference books provided determine the following attributes for the selected product:
Active ingredient/s
Mode of action
Range of action
Indications
Contraindications
Advantages
Disadvantages
Example label
Indications

Active ingredient/s


Advantages

Disadvantages
Check equipment for damages
Injectable - needles
Pour on - skin contact
Capsules - fingers
Administration techniques
Accidental Poisoning
Poisons No. 0800 POISON 0800 764 766
Know what to do in emergency
Animal Welfare Considerations
Accurate dosing
Handling and Health and Safety Considerations
Cost and Control
Farm Management Techniques
Know your farm:
Resistance status, records ineffective products, regular testing

Stock management:
Rotational grazing with different species.
Ewes before lambs, Plan drenching timing

Pasture management:
Resting paddocks, hay, silage, burning off,
feed pads

Aim: Sustainability. Manage the parasite populations and develop a sustainable drench protocol for the farm
Stock handling
Correct restraints
Administration techniques
Damage mouths, skin, muscle.
Record keeping
Identification marker
Application Techniques
Watch Training Videos 4,5 and 6 - Application Techniques
Watch Training Video 2: Accurately Weighing Stock
Accurate weighing
Manufacturers Instructions
Efficient equipment
Correct technique
Under dosing - resistance
Over dosing - cost of product
Check chamber between animals
Clean Up
Watch Training Video 7 - Clean Up
Storage
Watch Training Video 8 - Storage
Calculating Dose Rates Exercise
Scenario 1).
You are preparing to drench a mob of 100 mixed age ewes. They have been accurately weighed and they range from 42kg to 50kg.
Oral drench is being used and the drench label states that the dose rate required to be effective is 1ml/5kg.
What will you set the applicator gun at if we were to give each member of the mob the same amount?
How much drench in total will we use?

Scenario 2).
A lifestyle block owner has four sheep he wants to drench. One is a lamb that weighs 10kg, there are two two tooths that weigh 38kg and one older ewe that weighs 45kg. The farmer is using a oral drench product and the label states that the dose rate required to be effective is 2ml/10kg
What should you do to ensure each animal gets the correct dose?
How much should each animal get?
How much drench will be required all together?
Practical Training
Once students have gained theoretical knowledge of drench application techniques and watched the training videos, on farm experience should be arranged either at a training farm or on an approved farm.
Students should be assisted by trained staff in the drench application techniques of at least two of the following: oral application (liquid or capsule); topical (pour-on) application either applied directly or using jetter system; and injectable application of drench products.
Drenching and Equipment Maintenance Training Course

Created and Presented by Natalie Atkinson.

Any Questions/Comments please use contact details provided.
Session One
Session Two
Session Four
Session Five
Session Six
Session Seven
Session Eight
Session Nine
Session Ten
Session Three
LEARNING OUTCOMES
Learning Outcome One:
Learning Outcome Two:
Learning Outcome Three:
Learning Outcome Four:
Learning Outcome Five:
Learning Outcome Six:
Learning Outcome Seven:
Learning Outcome Eight:
Learning Outcome Nine:
Learning Outcome Ten:

Tapeworm life cycle - direct or indirect
Liver Fluke Life cycle - indirect
Training Video 1: Health and Safety and Animal Welfare Considerations
Note to marker: Sorry I was unsure of how to actually capture this topic in a video reference.
Training Video 2: Weighing Stock Accurately
Training Video 3: Calibrating a drench gun
Training Video 4: Application Techniques
Oral Drenching
Training Video 5: Application Techniques
Capsule administration
Training Video 6: Application Techniques
Pour On application
Training Video 7: Clean up
Training Video 8: Storing Drench Products
Occur mainly in sheep and goats
Abomasum
Blood suckers
Cause significant damage quickly
Numbers can multiply quickly
Warm areas of NZ
http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/172/flashcards/1100172/png/barber_pole1329688607237.png
http://www.webcitation.org/getfile?fileid=991ade40a222b6a783be551f7cbe9157c67a5772
http://www.rvc.ac.uk/review/parasitology/images/L3ID/large/Ostertagia-ostertagi_2_L3.jpg
Sheep and Cattle
Abomasum and Small Intestine
Irriatate stomach lining
Throughout NZ in late Autumn and Winter
Skin penetration
http://www.vetnext.com/images/z/73354080189%20326.jpg
http://i277.photobucket.com/albums/kk49/Livsa/laminas%20de%20parasito/DSC06125.jpg
Small Intestine blood suckers
Not a big issue for sheep
Occurs in cattle
Resistant to ML
http://www.rvc.ac.uk/review/parasitology/images/L3ID/normal/Nbattus2.jpg
Sheep small intestine
Cold regions on NZ
Eggs on pasture in capsules
Common in lambs prior to weaning
http://blog.mycology.cornell.edu/files/2006/12/lungworm525.jpg
Horses and ruminants
Migratory SI to lungs
Damage lungs, cause pneumonia
http://www.washington.edu/news/files/2012/08/tapeworm1.jpg
http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/24/88524-004-91B180F0.jpg
Flattened leaf shape
Indirect life cycle with snails
Migratory SI to liver/bile ducts
causes damage to the liver and bile ducts
Secondary bacterial infections
Condemned liver
http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Images/LBUN-6SA4LJ/$File/BPI_hydatid_cycle.gif
http://merial.co.uk/SiteCollectionImages/life_cycle_of_liver_fluke.gif
Below 25*C
Out of direct sunlight
Original containers - Easily identifiable
Upright
Tight fitting lids
Manufacturers recommendations - fridge, not exposed to light
Out of reach of children and animals
Locked away
Equipment
References and recommended websites
A Farmer's guide to Smart Drenching. Intervet Schering-Plough Animal Health website www.smartdrenching.co.nz

Beef and lamb New Zealand; Worm wise www.wormwise.co.nz

MerialAncare website merialancare.co.nz

Block Course Class practical experience

Certificate in Rural Animal Technology; Moodle learning resources, Course 3 Diagnostics and Parasitology notes by Dr. Francesca Matthews. January 2012.
Teladorsargia (originally called Ostertagia) in sheep
Ostertagia - most important worm in cattle
Larvae in abomasl wall
Improper digestion and malnutrition
4 months on pasture
Throughout NZ
Type II Ostertagiasis
Lungworm life cycle - migratory
Segmented body
Indirect life cycle
Adults and Larvae cause problems
Carcass damage
http://merial.co.nz/SiteCollectionImages/beef/endo_draw4.gif
Interactive training session designed to teach students how to use drug reference books such as IVS manual or Plumb.
http://merial.co.nz/SiteCollectionImages
http://images.ddccdn.com/pro/images/db329497-4534-4da0-a7bd-42436ab44f50/db329497-4534-4da0-a7bd-42436ab44f50-01.jpg

Mode of action



Range of action

Contraindications
http://www.wormboss.com.au/files/pages/worms/roundworms/roundworm-life-cycle/Roundworm_Lifecycle.jpg
What impact does it have?
Cost of stock, drench, time, labour, disease.
Less options for drench efficacy,

How do we reduce resistance?
FEC/FERT, Accurate doses for weights, Management techniques.

http://www.smartdrenching.co.nz/dyn_images/id_3.gif
Resistance frequency of drenches
Watch Training Video 1: Maintenance of health and safety and Animal welfare considerations
Remaining drench back into container
Drench containers and equipment triple rinsed
Warm soapy water to remove residue
Dry
Oil seals with Parafin oil
Dilution is the solution to pollution.
Watch Training Video 3: Calibrating Drench guns
Oral: Gun angled correctly, lift side of lip and slip towards back of mouth, fully compress trigger, hold animals head up to encourage them to swallow.
Capsule: Encourage to open mouth, place applicator on back of tongue, wait for animal to swallow, further progress applicator and release capsule, wait for swallow.
Topical: Along spine from base of neck to base of tail
Injectable: Under skin or into muscle, Anterior half of neck
Jetters: Saturate animal
Manufacturer's Instructions
Students should gain a sound understanding of the importance of drenching and the costs involved if inadequate drenching practices are performed.

Students should gain a general understanding of the significant parasites in New Zealand and have an understanding of how they affect the host

Students should gain a broad understanding of the basic internal parasite direct life-cycle and understand the concept of migratory parasites and indirect life cycles.

Students should gain a broad understanding of what anthelmintics are and be able to define the terms narrow and broad spectrum.

Students should gain an acceptable understanding of what drench resistance is, how it occurs and what farming practices can be done to reduce it.

Students should gain awareness of handling considerations when dealing with drench products, equipment and stock and understand safety and welfare considerations to do with each.

Students must be able to accurately calculate dose rates and understand the importance of correct dosing.

Students should be able to competently demonstrate different drench administration techniques including oral, injectable and topical applications.

Students should gain adequate knowledge of how to clean drenching equipment correctly.

Students should understand the importance of correct storage of drench products and their associated equipment.
Answers - Quiz 2
1). Resistance is the development of worms that are not effected by drench
2) Refugia is susceptible parasites left on pasture to dilute the amount of resistant parasites
3). Resistance can be caused by natural selection or exposure to sub lethal doses of chemical
4). Faecal egg reduction test (FERT)
5). Farm management techniques include keeping records, stock management and pasture management
6). Aim to manage the parasite population and develop sustainable drench protocols
Quiz 2
1). What is drench resistance

2). What is refugia?

3). Name one thing that can cause resistance

4). What test can be done to see if drench is working effectively?

5). Name three farm management techniques that can reduce resistance

6). What should be the aim on every farm?
Quiz 1
1). Name two reasons why stock are drenched.

2). Name two important internal parasite in New Zealand.

3). Describe the 5 main steps of a direct life cycle.

4). Name another type of life cycle and give an example.

5). What is Anthelmintic another name for and what does it do?

6). Define narrow spectrum.

7). Define Broad spectrum.
1). Improve health, reduce losses improve production, increase profit
2). Haemonchus
Teladorsagia (aka, sheep Ostertagia)
Ostertagia
Trichostrongylus
Cooperia
Nematodirus
Lungworm
Tapeworm
Liver flukes
3). Adults in animal reproduce, eggs passed out in faeces, L1 in faeces, L2 in faeces, L3 on pasture and soil consumed by host.
4). Migratory - Lungworm, Indirect - Liver fluke or tapeworm
5). Drench, Drug or Chemical that expels parasitic worms
6). A drench product that is only effective against a narrow range of parasites
7). A drench product that is effective against a wide range of parasites
Answers - Quiz 1
Quiz 3
1). Name three health and safety considerations when preparing to use drench products

2) Name three animal welfare considerations when dealing with drench products

3). Why do we weigh stock?

4). Name one consequence of under dosing

5). Name one consequence of over dosing.

6). List three different application techniques
Quiz 4
Answers - Quiz 3
1). Check equipment for damages; no skin contact with pour on; no contact with injectable needles: no contact with teeth with capsules; correct application technique; accidental poisoning
2). Trained handlers; Correct restraint; Correct technique; prevent damage to stock mouths skin and muscle; Record keeping.
3). To ensure accurate dosing
4). Create resistance, stock still affected by worms, production losses
5).wasted product, cost of product, non-practical use of labour and time
6).Oral (liquid or capsules); injectable; topical (pour on or jetters)
Answers - Quiz 4
1). Put it back into the original container.
2). Three
3). Parafin oil
4). Below 25*C unless otherwise stated on packaging
5). Out of direct sunlight; in original containers; upright; tight fitting lids; out of reach of children and animals; in locked area if necessary.
6). 0800 Poison / 0800 764 766
1) What should you do with left over oral drench in your back pack and applicator?

2). How many times should empty containers and equipment be rinsed?

3). What product is ideal for oiling drench gun seals?

4). What temperature should drench be stored at?

5) Name two regulations for storing drench.

6). What is the number to call if accidental poisoning should occur?
Calculating Dose Rates Answers
Scenario 1).
50kg divided by 5=10ml
10ml x 100 sheep = 1000ml or 1L

Scenario 2).
Dose each animal individually with the correct amount for their weight

Lamb: 10kg divide by 10=1
1 x 2ml = 2ml
Two tooths: 38kg divide by 10-3.8
3.8 x 2ml = 7.6ml (8ml)
Ewe: 45kg divide by 10 = 4.5
4.5 x 2ml = 9ml

Total amount of drench: 2ml+8ml+9ml = 19ml
http://images.ddccdn.com/pro/images/db329497-4534-4da0-a7bd-42436ab44f50/db329497-4534-4da0-a7bd-42436ab44f50-02.jpg
Dosing instructions and chart



Health and Safety warnings

Residue warnings

Animal safety warnings

Storage
Disposal
Full transcript