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S4: Propaganda, Militarism and Rallies & Resistance Groups

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Alec Jessop

on 7 September 2016

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Transcript of S4: Propaganda, Militarism and Rallies & Resistance Groups

What was the impact of Nazi methods of propaganda on the German people?
The Impact of Propaganda
Propaganda & the Radio:
Nazi Rallies:
Propaganda and the Olympic Games:
Militarism and Propaganda:
Propaganda, Militarism and Rallies
Studies have shown that propaganda cannot really persuade people to believe something that they do not want to believe. Where Nazi propaganda was successful was pandering to the beliefs of the German middle-classes:
It told them that Hitler was saving Germany.
It told them that Jews were wicked.
It told them that Germany had not really lost the First World War.
'The intelligence of the masses is small. Their forgetfulness is great. They must be told the same thing a thousand times.'
Dr Joseph Goebbels was in charge of the Ministry of Popular Entertainment and Enlightenment.
'It is the task of state propaganda to simplify complicated ways of thinking so that even the smallest man in the street may understand.'
More important than this perhaps, was Goebbels' role in censoring and prevent anti-Nazi views from being heard. In May 1933 Goebbels organised a book burning campaign where 'good Germans' were encouraged to throw books disapproved by the Nazis onto bonfires.
In the 1930s, the radio was the at the forefront of technology. The Nazis were well aware of the power of the radio. By 1939, 70% of German homes had a radio. The Nazis produced millions of cheap radios with a very limited range. This meant listeners could only pick up German, Nazi controlled stations.
'Through technical devices like the radio, 80 million people were deprived of independent thought. It was possible to subject them to the will of one man.'
Albert Speer, adviser to Hitler
1. What does Albert Speer mean by his statement?
2. Do you think it would be easier or more difficult for the Nazis to have spread their propaganda message if today's levels of technology had existed?
3. Think of a typical Nazi point of view that was 'sold' to the public by their propaganda. Describe the ways in which the Nazis may have spread such a message if they had access to today's technology.
Each year in September, gigantic rallies were held in Nuremberg. Hundreds of thousands of people attended these rallies where they were entertained by mock battles, military parades, triumphant music all building into the crescendo of Hitler's speech. Hitler's speeches would always be followed by hysterical, fanatical cheering.
1. Describe the events of a Nuremberg rally.
2. What impact do you think attending a Nazi rally would have on:
a) a strong Nazi Supporter
b) someone who was undecided about the Nazi party
3. In what way can the Nuremberg Rallies be described as an effective form of propaganda?
The Berlin Olympics were one massive propaganda opportunity for Hitler.
He wanted to show the world how much the Nazis had saved Germany and restored it to a prosperous, healthy country again.
By building stadia for the games Hitler created jobs and also impressed people with powerful Nazi architecture.
Equally Hitler wanted to demonstrate to the world and to the Germans the strength of the Aryan 'master race' by winning as much medals as possible.
1. What propaganda opportunities did hosting the Olympic games provide Hitler with?
2. To what extent did the Olympic Games 'prove' Aryans to be the 'Master Race'?
Militarism was a central feature of Nazi Propaganda.
Through militaristic propaganda, the Nazis convinced the German public that Germany was ready for another war, just 15 years after the slaughter of WWI.
At Nuremberg Rallies, German people could gaze in amazement at pretend battles, watch marches with drums, flags and uniformed men and women all with the purpose of highlighting the strength of the German Military.
As often possible school timetables incorporated military situations and PE for boys largely focused on military drills and exercises.
Militarism was at the heart of the Hitler Youth, an organisation where boys were taught military skills in preparation for joining the army.
1. Describe the ways in which the Nazis spread militaristic propaganda.
2. What do you think the purpose of this was?
Order the Nazi methods of Propaganda from most to least effective:
Explain your answer.
Review and Reflect:
Sophie Scholl:
1. Write down the last 3 bands/groups or singers who's songs you downloaded.
2. Write down the last 3 films you watched.
3. Write down your 3 favourite television programmes.
How would you feel if the Scottish Government enforced a law that you could only listen to music recorded or written by Scots, you could only watch films or TV programmes made in Scotland?
Youth resistance and opposition in Nazi Germany
Although small scale, all resistance towards the Nazi Party is worth remembering.
1. What steps had the Nazi Party taken to stop any political opposition to their rule?
2. What steps had the Nazi Party taken to prevent internal opposition?
Despite the dangers that existed, there were many young people who took huge risks to resist the Nazis. They all knew that they were unlikely to succeed but felt that they could not stand back and accept the Nazi dictatorship.
Jigsaw Task:
You each have a handout on one of the three youth opposition groups to the Nazis.
Read through your handout, then complete the following fact-file in your jotter:
Name of Resistance group:
Reasons for resisting:
What happened to the group:
What do youth resistance groups tell us about the success of the Nazis in attempting to indoctrinate young people?
How do you think resistance groups could have effectively fought against the Nazi regime?
Try to think of tactics that would cause disruption but be difficult to detect.
Jigsaw Task:
You know have a total of 6 minutes to put your jigsaw together. Take it in turns to teach each other about your group, ensuring that your fact-files are completed.
"Stand up for what you believe in, even if you are standing alone."
What does my death matter, if through us thousands of people are awakened and stirred into action.
Extension: Which of the youth groups do you think the Nazis would have viewed as the most serious threat? Why?
Although small scale, all resistance towards the Nazi Party is worth remembering.
Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Provide at least 2 reasons to support your answer.
As another way of controlling the lives of young people in Nazi Germany, all music that was not considered German was banned.
Only films produced by the Nazis were shown in Cinemas and the Nazis had complete control over radio stations.
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