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Thinking Geographically

Human Geography - Chapter 1

Eric Austin

on 22 January 2015

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Transcript of Thinking Geographically

Thinking Geographically
Welcome to Geography
Ancient & Medieval Geography
combines natural & social sciences
Geographers explain WHERE things are, WHY they are there, & why their locations have SIGNIFICANCE
How do geographers describe where things are?
Human Geography
Physical Geography
study cultural features...
study distribution of natural features...
WHY is every place
on Earth unique?
specific point on Earth distinguished
by particular characteristics
an area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural & physical features
Why are different places interrelated?
relationship between the portion of the Earth being studied and Earth as a whole
physical gap or interval between two objects
relationships among people & objects across the barrier of space
How do geographers describe where things are?
Oldest known map...
World Map by Ptolemy
World Map by Al-Indrisi
World Map by Waldseemuller
World Map by Ortelius
Thales of Miletus
Yu Gong
Pei Xiu
Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn-Battuta
Reading Maps
How do geographers describe where things are?
cartography: science of mapmaking
map: scale model of the real world
How much of the Earth's surface to depict?
How to transfer a spherical Earth to a flat map?
Map Scale
1 centimeter equals 10 kilometers
small scale
large scale
projection: transferring locations on Earth's surface
Azimuthal Projection
Conic Projection
Cylindrical Projection
1. shape: appears more elongated or squat
2. distance: may become increased or decreased
3. relative size: area may appear larger than another on a map but is in reality smaller
4. direction: from one place to another can be distorted
The Geographic Grid
How do geographers describe where things are?
meridian: an arc drawn between North & South poles
longitude: meridian lines running from North to South
parallel: a circle drawn around the globe
latitude: parallel lines running around the globe
Contemporary Analytic Tools
How do geographer's describe where things are?
Remote Sensing
Global Positioning System
Geographic Information System
acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite or other method
system that determines the precise position of something on Earth
system that captures, stores, queries, analyzes, and displays geographic data
Place: A Unique Location
Why is each point on Earth unique?
position something occupies on Earth's surface
Becker, MN: 45° 23' 29" N, 93° 52' 22" W
How would I find the school?
How would I find the city park?
How would I find McDonald's?
How would I find your house?
toponym: name given to a place on Earth
Site: physical characteristics of a place
Situation: location of a place relative to other places
Formal Region: area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics
Vernacular Region: place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity
Scale: From Global to Local
globalization: a force or process that involves the entire world
How are different locations interrelated?
Space: Distribution of Features
How are different locations interrelated?
arrangement of a feature in space...
Density: frequency with which something occurs in space
Concentration: extent of a feature's spread over space
Pattern: arrangement of objects in space
Connection: Interaction Between Places
How are different locations interrelated?
space-time compression: reduction in time it takes for something to reach another place
Relocation Diffusion
Expansion Diffusion
Spatial Interaction
Diffusion: process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another
occurs through cultural interaction involving persons, objects, or ideas
physical movement from one place to another
spread of a feature from one place to another in an additive process
Hierarchical Diffusion
Contagious Diffusion
Stimulus Diffusion
when places are connected to each other through a network
Earth's Physical Systems
How do people relate to their environment?
thin layer of gases surrounding Earth
all of the water on or near Earth's surface
Earth's crust and a portion of upper mantle below the crust
all living organisms on Earth
Ecosystem: a group of living organisms and the spheres with which they interact
Human-Environment Interaction
How do people relate to their environment?
cultural ecology: study of human-environment relationships
Environmental Determinism
the physical environment CAUSED social development
people have the ability to adjust to their environment
Region: A Unique Area
Why is each point on Earth unique?
Functional Region: an area organized around a node or focal point
Television Markets
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