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Copy of How to Avoid Plagiarism: When to Cite Sources

Tips for avoiding plagiarism and citing sources

Faith Shaffner

on 9 April 2014

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Transcript of Copy of How to Avoid Plagiarism: When to Cite Sources

Some Examples of Plagiarism
How to Avoid Plagiarism
What Do You Need to Cite?
Copying from a website, like Wikipedia
Copying from an article or book
Copying someone else's work
Any form of copying & pasting, without citing
Re-wording a source, or someone else's work without citing it
Failing to use quotation marks around a direct quote
Buying an essay online & turning it in as your own
What is Plagiarism?
Your own opinions & facts
"I believe..."
"In my opinion..."
"My ideas include..."
"I propose..."
What Don't You Need to Cite?
Common Knowledge
The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
The U.S. declared its independence from Great Britain.
H20 is the chemical formula for water.
Citing Sources - Quoting
Quoting - What is it? It's using the exact words from a source.
Use quotation marks for direct quotes.
When quoting, make reference to the author or work:
Consult a style guide (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago) for citation specifications.
Citing Sources - Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing - What is it? It's restating the authors words & ideas using your own words.
Still need to cite it!
Successful vs. Unsuccessful Paraphrasing:
Citing Sources - Summarizing
Summarizing - What is it? It's condensing down the authors words & ideas using your own words.
It's not your own idea, so you need to cite it!
Shorter than the author's words. Think of it as presenting the info in a nutshell.
Tips on Summarizing:
"The action or practice of taking someone else's work and passing it off as one's own; literary theft."
-Oxford English Dictionary
What Do You Need to Cite?
When you use sources that aren't your own original words, experiences or ideas, whether you're quoting it or re-writing it, you still need to cite it!
In discussing recent Middle East events, Ibrahim Elnur argues that: "The domino effect of the current wave of uprisings is a function of both the implosion of the system of political patronage and the remarkably small 'global village'..." (132).
Critical care nurses function in a hierarchy of roles. In this open heart surgery unit, the nurse manager hires and fires the nursing personnel. The nurse manager does not directly care for patients but follows the progress of unusual or long-term patients. On each shift a nurse assumes the role of resource nurse. This person oversees the hour-by-hour functioning of the unit as a whole, such as considering expected admissions and discharges of patients, ascertaining that beds are available for patients in the operating room, and covering sick calls. Resource nurses also take a patient assignment. They are the most experienced of all the staff nurses. The nurse clinician has a separate job description and provides for quality of care by orienting new staff, developing unit policies, and providing direct support where needed, such as assisting in emergency situations. The clinical nurse specialist in this unit is mostly involved with formal teaching in orienting new staff. The nurse manager, nurse clinician, and clinical nurse specialist are the designated experts. They do not take patient assignments. The resource nurse is seen as both a caregiver and a resource to other caregivers. . . . Staff nurses have a hierarchy of seniority. . . . Staff nurses are assigned to patients to provide all their nursing care (Chase 156).
Critical care nurses have a hierarchy of roles. The nurse manager hires and fires
nurses. S/he
does not directly care for patients
but does
follow unusual or long-term
On each shift
a resource nurse attends to the
functioning of the unit as a whole, such as
making sure
beds are available in the operating room
, and also has
a patient assignment
. The nurse clinician
orients new staff, develops policies, and provides support where needed.
The clinical nurse specialist also
orients new staff, mostly
formal teaching. The nurse manager, nurse clinician, and clinical nurse specialist,
the designated experts, do not take patient assignments
. The resource nurse is not only a caregiver but
a resource to the other caregivers.
Within the staff nurses there is also
a hierarchy of seniority
. Their job is to give assigned patients
all their nursing care
(Chase 156)
Chase describes how nurses in a critical care unit
function in a hierarchy
that places
designated experts
at the top and the least senior staff nurses at the bottom. The experts — the nurse manager, nurse clinician, and clinical nurse specialist — are not involved directly in patient care. The staff nurses, in contrast,
are assigned to patients
provide all their nursing care
. Within the staff nurses is a
hierarchy of seniority
in which the most senior can become resource nurses: they are assigned a patient but also serve as
a resource to other caregivers
. The experts have administrative and teaching tasks such as selecting and
orienting new staff,

developing unit policies
, and giving hands-on
support where needed
In her study of the roles of nurses in a critical care unit, Chase also found a hierarchy that distinguished the roles of experts and others. Just as the educational experts described above do not directly teach students, the experts in this unit do not directly attend to patients. That is the role of the staff nurses, who, like teachers, have their own “hierarchy of seniority” (156). The roles of the experts include employing unit nurses and overseeing the care of special patients (nurse manager), teaching and otherwise integrating new personnel into the unit (clinical nurse specialist and nurse clinician), and policy-making (nurse clinician). In an intermediate position in the hierarchy is the resource nurse, a staff nurse with more experience than the others, who assumes direct care of patients as the other staff nurses do, but also takes on tasks to ensure the smooth operation of the entire facility.
patchwork paraphrase
paraphrase that fits in with the thesis of student's paper: "comparing the functions of experts and nonexperts in several professions"
Full transcript