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The American Revolution

A timeline of the important events from the French and Indian War to the ratification of the U.S. Constitution.

Dominique Staton

on 18 September 2012

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Transcript of The American Revolution

The American Revolution By: Dominique Staton THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR (1754)
A war between Great Britain and France that spanned
seven years...
When Great Britain beat the French, a Treaty of Paris was signed that gave Britain ownership of Canada and all French territory east of the Mississippi River...
Once the war was over...
Britain demanded higher taxes from the colonies and
The colonies no longer needed Britain's military protection against the French.

These two changes were the original cause of America's new desire for independence. THE FIRST TWO BRITISH ACTS
REVOLUTIONARY WAR... The sugar Act (1764): a heavy tax on refined sugar imported into the colonies (gave Britain a monopoly on the colonies' sugar sales)

The Stamp Act (1765): required colonists to pay for a tax stamp to put on anything they printed or published

These two acts against the colonists caused them to have an general disliking of the British government, as well as the British officials
who enforced these acts *Act= a formal decision or law* He explained how the colonists had the same rights as their fellow Englishmen in their home country and how only the representatives of the colonists, who were elected to office, had the right to tax the colonies. *In this controversial speech to the House of Burgesses, Patrick Henry, a Virginian attorney, planter and politician, publicized the treasonous feelings that the colonists had been too afraid to express* In the most treasonous part of the speech. Patrick Henry very blatantly compared King George III to Caesar Augustus and Charles the First, two of histories monarchs who had been assassinated. When the House of Burgesses angrily interrupted his speech by screaming "Treason!" he calmly finished his speech with his famous quote "If this be treason, let's make the most of it." This speech roused the colonists' spirits and gave them reason to
believe that it was possible for them to separate themselves
from the crown. THE STAMP ACT CONGRESS *It was in this political meeting that the colonists
first considered taking action against Great Britain to end their mistreatment.*

In this meeting, the colonists spoke in length about the negative effect of Britain's tax acts. By the end of the congress, the nine colonies present had developed a plan to boycott all stamped goods.

Once Britain caught wind of this meeting, and the
anger the colonists harbored against the British
government, they quickly repealed the stamp act. THE TOWNSHEND ACTS THE BOSTON MASSACRE THE BOSTON TEA PARTY THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS THE ALBANY CONGRESS (1754) THE WAR BEGINS... THE RIDES OF PAUL REVERE AND WILLIAM DAWES THE BATTLES OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD *The original purpose of this congress was to develop a peace treaty to share with the Native Americans, and to develop some sort of colonial defense plan against the French.* These two purposes were met, but Benjamin Franklin, a well-known printer, scientist and politician, wrote a plan of government aptly named the "Albany Plan of Union".

It was meant to unite the colonies "under one government as far as might be necessary for defense and other general important purposes."

Both England and the colonies turned down Franklin's
plan, but it proved very useful to the colonists in
later years... 1765 1765 1767 To pay the salaries of British governors and judges in the colonies so they did not have to answer to the colonists
To punish New York for not abiding by the previous quartering act
To prove to the colonists that they had the right to enforce taxes and also do so without representation The British Parliament passed this string of five acts for a variety of reasons... These five acts, that did little more than
enrage the already irritated colonists
and cause boycotts,
included... This first incident of British soldiers actually attacking
the colonists distinguished the British as enemies,
once and for all. It drove the colonists past their
breaking point and convinced a lot of them
that it was time for a revolution THE REVENUE ACT

Put a tax on:

Set up an American Board of Customs to

enforce the aforementioned taxes tea glass lead paint paper THE NEW YORK RESTRAINING ACT

Dissolved the power of the New York

Assembly (New York's governing body) until

New York began to act by the previous

Quartering Act

Removed the tax on tea that was imported

to England (so it would be cheaper for the

colonists to trade tea with England than

with anyone else) *A violent incident in which a group of about twenty British soldiers opened fire on a group of unarmed protesters, killing five and wounding six others* The Sons and Daughters of Liberty named this event the Boston Massacre so it would catch people's attention in the newspaper and rouse anger. *A midnight raid in which the Sons of
Liberty, many of whom disguised themselves as Native Americans, boarded British tea ships and dumped the tea into the Boston Harbor.* In response to this protest against the tea tax, the British Parliament passed the Intolerable acts... 1770 1773 The five intolerable acts were King George's way of punishing the colonists for their insolence by taking away all of their rights.
The effects of them included: *Closed the Boston Port, the colonies' main site of import and export, to all ships except those that were coming from or going to England.*

This made the colonies completely dependent on England because they couldn't trade much with other countries. THE BOSTON PORT BILL THE QUARTERING ACT The King sent hundreds of troops to oversee the colonies.

*The colonists were forced to house and feed them under penalty off death.* ADMIN. OF JUSTICE ACT Any British official on trial for a crime was to be sent back to England for their trial.

British officials could now do whatever they wanted to because the colonists could do nothing to them. MASS. GOVERNMENT ACT The British governor was made the head of Boston's town meetings.

Now Boston was in no position to govern itself as it had in the past. THE QUEBEC ACT Made Massachusetts, Connecticut and Virginia Canadian territory.

This infuriated the colonist not only because they hated the French, but because colonists with Western Land Grants lost all of their land.

The purpose of this meeting was not to separate from England completely, but to figure out how to compromise with the king. The colonists wanted to figure out the most efficient way to get their rights (pertaining to government and taxation) back without doing anything drastic.

During this congress, the colonists developed the Olive Branch petition, assuring King George of their loyalty
and kindly asking for their rights as British citizens. *A meeting, of twelve of the
colonies' representatives, to figure out
how to respond to the intolerable acts* He never responded to it. 1774 The importance of Paul Revere and William Dawes' rides is that they were riding through the countryside to warn the area militias that the British soldiers were coming through the area as they left Boston.

Paul Revere's friend agreed to help them by leaving either one or two lanterns in the church belfry to alert Revere and Dawes on whether the soldiers are leaving "by land" or "by sea."

The British soldiers ultimately
left by sea. Lexington and Concord are two of the
three towns that Paul Revere rode through to warn the colonists, and also the setting of the first battle of the Revolutionary War. The battles occurred because the British soldiers traveling through the countryside had been instructed to take over the colonies' military stores as they marched through.

The colonists in Lexington and Concord had already been warned about the mission, so they hid all of their military resources before the British soldiers got there.

Not only did the British soldiers did not get to complete their
mission but the colonial militia outmaneuvered them
with guerrilla warfare. This battle style proved to be
their number weapon against the British for the
remainder of the war. THE SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS *This congress took place in order for the
colonists to regroup and begin planning their
war efforts against Great Britain.*

At this point, they decided by unanimous vote that the young farmer and Virginia delegate George Washington would be commander in chief of the continental army. This congress remained the "military headquarters" of the colonies for many years THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL *This battle took place just outside of Boston on Breed's Hill.*

The English were led by General Howe and General Clinton, while the colonists were led by Colonel Putnam and Colonel Prescott.

The colonists had to retreat during this battle because they ran out of ammunition, but it was a costly win for the British because they lost a staggering amount of men (almost half of their soldiers). This battle proved to the colonists that they
could actually compete with the
British soldiers. THE PUBLISHING OF
"COMMON SENSE" *Thomas Paine wrote this fifty
page pamphlet to explain, in bold language, why the colonists should declare independence from Great Britain* THE DECLARATION
OF INDEPENDENCE *This pivotal document declared the United States independent of British rule.*

The Declaration of Independence explained why it was the right of the colonists to separate themselves from their tyrannical king. To have anything to do with this document, let alone sign it was high treason. Despite this fact, the delegates of all thirteen colonies signed it on July fourth, 1776. THE BATTLE OF TRENTON *In this battle, George Washington and his troops crossed the Delaware bridge in the middle of the night to attack the British troops by surprise.

This battle was the first American victory in the entire Revolutionary War.

It did wonders to raise the morale of the continental troops. THE BATTLE OF PRINCETON *Days before this battle took place, most of the colonial soldiers' enlistments had ended. General Washington had to convince them to stay and fight.*

In this battle, which took place less than a week after the battle of Trenton, Washington split his troops into three groups. They were to approach the British soldiers from three different angles.

Although one group was surrounded and forced to retreat, the remaining soldiers faced the British head on and overran their forces.

This battle was a small victory, but also a decisive one. THE AMERICAN FLAG RESOLUTION The second continental congress passed a resolution on June 14th 1777 that stated the design of the American flag.

It would have thirteen alternating red and white stripes, and there would be thirteen white stars in a blue field to represent the thirteen colonies. THE BATTLE OF SARATOGA In this battle, the continental army, led by Sir William Howe and General John Stark, made the extreme colonial victory in the Revolutionary War.

British General Burgoyne overestimated the timely arrival of his backup troops (Loyalists and Native Americans).

The British troops were brutally beaten and ended up surrendering nearly ninety
percent of their troops and all of
their arms. THE WINTER AT VALLEY FORGE *At the beginning of their stay at this sparse encampment in the winter of 1777, the Continental Army suffered from food shortages, lack of clothing and widespread disease.*

The arrival of a Prussian general named Von Steuben, marked the beginning of more efficient living arrangements, better training tactics and greatly improved morale.

By the end of their stay in Valley Forge, the militia had become highly-trained
killing machines. 1775 1775 1775 1775 It had a tremendous impact on the overall feelings of the colonists in relation to the war. It also swayed the opinions of many colonists who had previously
been loyal to the crown. 1776 1776 1776 1777 1777 1777 THE BRITISH CAPTURE
OF CHARLESTON 1780 *In this siege, British general sir Henry Clinton led fifteen thousand soldiers to take over Charleston, the colonies' main port and largest city.*

His staggering number of troops quickly overwhelmed the six thousand continental defending the city and Charleston was lost to the colonists. This was by far the worst defeat the colonists suffered during the Revolutionary War. THE BATTLE OF KING'S MOUNTAIN *This battle was an ironic and decisive win for the Continental army.* Before this battle took place, British Major Patrick Ferguson and his foot regiment had set up camp in North Carolina to recruit Loyalist soldiers. He cockily decided to challenge the patriot soldiers in the area by telling them to give up their weapons or else. This angered the Patriots and they chose to attack. At this point, the Patriots chased the Loyalists down and surrounded them, picking off their soldiers in the name of "Tartleton's Quarter." By the time the Patriot officers got their soldiers under control, they had nearly wiped out the Loyalist militia. Ferguson had also been killed.

The Patriots then had to flee the area for fear that Cornwallis' nearby troops would come after them.

This triumph over the Loyalists once again assured the Continental
Army of their fighting abilities.

With no militia in the area, Cornwallis was ultimately forced to
evacuate North Carolina. THE BATTLE OF COWPENS
In this battle, Morgan set up a trap for the Loyalists soldiers by placing a small amount of his soldiers in a field, and the rest of them hundreds of yards behind them, behind cover of a hill.

As the battle began, the Patriot troops in the field were instructed to retreat early.

Tartelton's troops assumed they had won and chased the small group of Patriots right into a group of one thousand Continental soldiers.

Surprised and overwhelmed, the Loyalists suffered
staggering losses and ended up surrendering. This battle, in which the Patriots were lead by
Daniel Morgan and the Loyalists were led by
Banastre Tartleton, the Loyalists suffered their
worst loss in the American Revolution. THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION This document was the first United States constitution.

The colonist named the country in this document, and made very clear that the executive government they set up had no power to manipulate the colonies. VICTORY AT LAST!!! PATRIOT TRIUMPH AT GUILFORD COURTHOUSE *During this battle, British general Cornwallis' troops got the Patriots to surrender, but in turn lost a lot of their soldiers.*

This battle signified a turning point in the Revolution: now the British soldiers were struggling to stay alive.

The Continental Army proved itself to be a worthy opponent after all. PEOPLE TO KNOW Patriots= colonists who wanted to be free of British rule Samuel Adams= patriot who organized the Boston Tea Party and signed the Declaration of Independence Paul Revere= patriot silversmith; famous for riding through Lexington to warn militia of British approach General Cornwallis= the best military general in the British military force Francis Marion= Patriot general and guerilla warfare specialist Thomas Paine= Patriot writer who wrote the pamphlet "Common Sense" Thomas Jefferson= writer of the Declaration of Independence George Washington= first comm. in chief of continental army; first president of U.S. Patrick Henry= famous Patriot and public speaker Benjamin Franklin= printer and author who took up politics Loyalists= colonists who were loyal to the king 1780 1781 1781 1781 THE BATTLE OF YORKTOWN 1781
The Patriots were attacking by land and the French were attacking by sea.

Cornwallis and his troops were forced to surrender. *In this memorable battle of the Revolutionary War, General
Cornwallis and his troops were
trapped between the Americans
and French on both sides.* THE TREATY OF PARIS 1783 *This hard-earned treaty between the Patriots and the British officially ended the Revolutionary War.*

Under its terms, the British recognized the United States of America as an independent country.

America agreed to let the British soldiers
leave safely, and to pay their debts
to England. THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR WAS A SUCCESS!!! THANK-YOU FOR READING... The Sons and Daughters of Liberty= a secret Patriot organization that formed in response to the Stamp Act

The Committees of Correspondence= an inter colonial committee formed to keep the colonists informed on current British activities
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