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Introduction to APA Style

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Kelley Wadson

on 23 September 2013

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Transcript of Introduction to APA Style

Introduction to APA Style
Academic Dishonesty & Plagiarism
In the student handbook, Bow Valley College (2013) defines plagiarism as "that which is represented as one’s own work and has been deliberately copied from any outside source, including other students’ work" (p. 26).
What is APA Style?
A citation “style” is a
set of rules
providing consistency so a reader may easily refer to the
original source
in order to
evaluate, validate, or refute
the claims made by the writer’s interpretation of that source.
Author, A. (year of publication).
Journal article from a database with assigned digital object identifier (doi):
Types of References
1) Citation facilitates scholarly discourse and the production of knowledge

2) Citation is a recognition of intellectual labour and legal ownership
The rules of “APA style” are maintained by the American Psychological Association (APA) as a means of standardizing the format of research papers.

APA Style Citation Basics
2) What is the
of the source?

Print book?
Journal article from a database?
1) Where is the citation

i. In the text of the paper ("in-text citations")
ii. At the end of the paper ("reference list")
Why is Citation so Important?
Guidelines for Three Areas
Format of the paper:
Reference list citations:
In-text citations:
Title page and headings
Abstract (if applicable)
Page numbers
All bibliographic details for the resources used as supporting evidence within the text of paper
Listed alphabetically on the last page(s)
Basic details for the resources used within the text of the paper
1) Periodicals
2) Non-Periodicals
3) Non-Print Sources
Published on a periodic basis (monthly, quarterly, etc)

academic journals
Produced in full-length as a one-time publication

Published in alternative formats or mediums

website pages

Reference List
The reference list is a complete list of the sources used in the text of the research paper, which enables the reader to locate them.

Entries are listed alphabetically
If you have more than one source by the same author, arrange by the year of publication beginning with the earliest
Reference list is double-spaced with hanging indent

Book with one author:
Chapter in edited book or anthology:
Title of book.
Location: Publisher.
Smith, J. (2009).
APA style manual.
Montreal, Canada: Carleton Press, Ltd.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor
Title of book
(pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.
Journal article from a database with URL (no assigned digital object identifier):
Author, A. A., (Year of publication). Title of article.
(issue number), pages.
Title of Periodical, volume number
Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Year of publication). Title of article.
Title of Periodical, volume number
(issue number), pages. Retrieved from http: //www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Craig, P. A., Federici, E., & Buehler, M. A. (2010). Instructing college students in academic integrity.
Journal of College Science Teaching, 40
(2), 50-55. Retrieved from http: //www.nsta.org/college/
Insley, R. (2011). Managing plagiarism: A preventative approach.
Business Communication Quarterly, 74
doi: 10.1177/1080569911404058
(2), 183-187.
doi: 10.xxxx/yyyyyyyy
News article retrieved from newspaper website:
Document retrieved on web page of an organization:
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article.
http: //www.someaddress.com/full/url/
Title of newspaper.
Retrieved from
Bow Valley College. (2013).
Name of organization. (Date of publication).
Retrieved from
Title of document.
http: //www.someaddress.com
http: //www.bowvalleycollege.ca/
Student handbook.
Retrieved from
Lang, J. M. (2013, September 11). News flash… Harvard students cheat, too.
from http: //ideas.time.com/2013/09/11/news-flash-harvard-students-cheat-too/
Motion picture film in DVD format:

Audio podcast retrieved on website:
Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication).
[Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.
Title of motion picture
Kubrick, S. (Director). (1980).
[Motion picture]. United States: Warner Brothers.
The Shining
Author, A. A. (Producer). (Year, Month Day).
Luksic, N. (Producer). (2013, September 19).
The faces of Eve
[Audio podcast]. Retrieved from
Title of motion picture
http: //www.someaddress.com/url
[Audio podcast]. Retrieved from
http: //www.cbc.ca/ideas/episodes/2013/09/19/the-faces-of-eve-1/
In-Text Citations
All sources (data, facts, information, ideas, opinions, tables, charts, etc.) used in the text of the paper must be cited.
Two types of in-text citation:
direct quotation
In general, in-text citations must include:
Use quotation marks when copying exact words
Place punctuation outside end bracket
Use signal phrases to introduce quotes, such as 'Bedford argues..." or "According to..."
date of publication
page number(s)
Bedford (2010) argues, “APA style can be difficult for college students” (p. 8).
Bedford's (2010) study found the following:
Short Quotes:
Long Quotes (40+ words):
According to some scholars, “APA style can be difficult for college students” (Bedford, 2010, p. 8).
Set apart from text
Indent five spaces from margin
No quotation marks
Punctuation before brackets
Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher or librarian for help. (p. 199)
To paraphrase is to restate the ideas, information, or facts written by another author(s) using different words.
Applying the rules of APA style can be hard for students (Bedford, 2010, p. 8).

Smith (2009) finds that APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (p. 199).

Rules of In-Text Citation:
How many authors?
2 authors...
3-5 authors...
More than 6 authors...
Combine both names, with "&" in brackets or "and" in the signal phrase:
Research by Bedford and Smith (2008) supports...
(p. 10).
(Bedford & Smith, 2008, p. 10)
List all names in the signal phrase or in brackets the first time you cite the source:
(Wilson, Kravitz, Thomson & Petty, 2011, p. 638)
In following citations, use first author's last name with "et al." in signal phrase or brackets:
In their analysis, Wilson et al. (2011) conclude.... (pp. 94-98).
(Wilson et al, 2011, pp. 94-98)
Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in brackets:
(Shaughnessy et al., 2007, p. 109).
In a randomized control trial conducted on diabetic patients, Shaughnessy et al. (2007) found... (p. 109).
For more help...
Kelley Wadson, Library Information Specialist
Drop by the RGO Library & Learning Commons (LLC) in Room S2009 of South Campus or contact us:
Kristina Douey, Learner Technology Support
Visit the LLC website for tutorials, handouts, and research guides: www.bowvalleycollege.ca/library
& B. B. Editor (Eds.),
Fuchita, Y., & Kodachi, K. (2012). Managing systemwide financial crises: Some lessons
from Japan since 1990. In R.E. Litan, R. Herring & Y. Fuchita (Eds).
Washington, D.C.:
Rocky Times:
New Perspectives on Managing Financial Stability
(pp. 11-58).
Brookings Institution Press.
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