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Science as a process

scientific method; science and technology

Jean Battinieri

on 11 September 2018

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Transcript of Science as a process

The scientific Method
A testable hypothesis is essential to the scientific process
the study of life

Science is:
a process of developing knowledge
a human endeavor that emerges from our curiosity about ourselves, the world, and the universe.
Good scientists are people who ____
(complete this statement)
Good scientists are people who:
ask questions about NATURE and believe those questions are answerable
are curious and observant
are creative, imaginative, and intuitive
are generally skeptics
The Scientific Method:
is not a rigid procedure
based on the idea that natural phenomena have natural causes
requires EVIDENCE to logically solve problems
The Scientific Method
Starts with
an Observation
Use the following pictures to write observations and inferences.
Observation - uses senses
Inference - conclusion based on observations and prior knowledge
Observations lead to QUESTIONS - What; Why; How?
Questions lead to RESEARCH
find out what is already known
has your question already been answered
Research Leads to HYPOTHESIS
a hypothesis MUST be TESTABLE - this is essential to the scientific process!
must be measurable
If ... then...
starts with manipulated variable and gives a measurable occurrence
If plants are exposed to different types of music then the plant exposed to classical music will increase in height the most.
Hypotheses Lead to Experiments
experiments test hypotheses
there are controlled and field experiments
In a controlled experiment only ONE variable is changed
the one variable that is changed is the INDEPENDENT VARIABLE it answers the question WHAT DID I CHANGE?
There is a response to that one variable that response is the DEPENDENT VARIABLE - it answers the question WHAT DID I MEASURE?
The experiment must be able to be REPRODUCED by others
Experiments Lead to Analysis
Use observations to collect data
Includes the data collected from the experiment
Data is used to determine if the hypothesis was correct
Analysis Leads to Conclusions
Was your experiment supported (correct)? or refuted (incorrect)?
the conclusion is the summary of all points prior to this point in the scientific method.
when writing a conclusion the following things need to be included:
restate your original hypothesis
state if your hypothesis was supported or refuted
give all specific evidence (DATA) that supports or proves wrong your hypothesis
note if there was experimental error
if your hypothesis is wrong suggest a new hypothesis or what you want to test next
Living things do NOT come from non-living things. Spontaneous generation does NOT occur, even with very small organisms.
Living things only come from other living things!
Since no microorganisms could get into the broth (they were trapped in the curve of the swan neck), none grew.

Pasteur broke the neck off a year later, allowed it to be exposed to air & microorganisms began to quickly grow.
Pour broth into flask
Heat neck & shape
Boil broth
Swan Necked Flask
Knew he needed to let air in, but not dust
Was inspired by…
Louis Pasteur
A contest was devised with a cash award for the person who could disprove the theory of abiogenesis.
Does Abiogenesis happen?
Spallanzani was convinced, but…
What do you think?
Did not believe in spontaneous generation
Read about Needham’s work
Set up his own experiment
Lazzaro Spallanzani
Experimental Group
Control Group
Broth in flasks boiled to sterilize

Bacteria found growing in both flasks
Biologist & Roman Catholic priest
Believed in abiogenesis for microscopic organisms
John Needham
Develops microscope
Discovers “animacules”
Opened up new world
Changed ideas about disease & sterilization
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Maggots do NOT come from dead meat
Otherwise known as…
Spontaneous Generation
Living things can come from
non-living things.

Why did people believe this?
People figured out the big stuff…

But what about the little things?
Where do living things come from?
Spontaneous Generation
Abiogenesis or Biogenesis?
Needham was convinced, but…
What do you think?
Maggots do not come from dead meat.
Hypothesis has been supported!

Does this disprove abiogenesis?
Only for flies!
What was Redi’s independent variable?

What was Redi’s dependent variable?
Quick Quiz
Redi thought so, but…
No air could get into the experimental jars
There was no “vital force”
People still believed in spontaneous generation or abiogenesis

Back to the drawing board…
Flies are attracted to meats.
Prediction: maggots come
from fly eggs.
Studied maggots
Did not believe they came from decaying meat
Set up an experiment
Francesco Redi
Experimental Group
Control Group
Broth in flasks boiled to sterilize

Bacteria found growing only in open flask
Where do they come from?
Microscopic Organisms
300’s B.C.
Observed nature

Deduced …
Experimental Group
Control Group
Experimental Group
Control Group
Observations start off the scientific method
The observer uses their senses and can say:
I see
I touch
I hear
I smell
I taste
no music
rock & roll
no music
rock and roll
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