Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Neurolinguistics

No description
by

Lee Li

on 25 April 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Neurolinguistics

Neuro-linguistics
Brian 0931100062

Isabella 1131900028

Kelly 1131900036

Jerry 0931100019

Nikki 0930700006

Ralph 0931100031

Lee 0931100070 Introduction Brian Broca’s Aphasia (From 1860s) Two Types of Aphasia 1. Broca's aphasia
2. Wernicke's aphasia Broca's Aphasia Examiner: describe this picture.
Patient : "Uh...mother and dad...no mother dishes...uh...runnin[g] over...water...and floor...and they...uh...wipin[f] dis[h]es...and uh...two kids...un...stool...un...tippin[g] over...and...uh...bad...and somebody...gonna get hurt." Broca's Aphasia Pierre Paul Broca
1860 Wernicke’s Aphasia (From 1870s) Lateralisation (Before 1890s) Freud & Critical Age Hypothesis (From 1890s) Neuro-linguistic Programming (From 1970s) Further discussion Two common reasons: 1. stroke
2. trauma to the brain,
tumor,etc Patient : "Uh...mother and dad...no mother dishes...uh...runnin[g] over...water...and floor...and they...uh...wipin[f] dis[h]es...and uh...two kids...un...stool...un...tippin[g] over...and...uh...bad...and somebody...gonna get hurt." Non-fluent Speech telegraphic .. ..... .. . .. inarticulate white at(cat) Patient : "Uh...mother and dad...no mother dishes...uh...runnin[g] over...water...and floor...and they...uh...wipin[f] dis[h]es...and uh...two kids...un...stool...un...tippin[g] over...and...uh...bad...and somebody...gonna get hurt." Agrammatism Agrammatism Breakdown in morphology
Breakdown in parts of speech
a. The boy ate the apple.
b. The clown chased the violinist. Breakdown in syntax Patient : "Uh...mother and dad...no mother dishes...uh...runnin[g] over...water...and floor...and they...uh...wipin[f] dis[h]es...and uh...two kids...un...stool...un...tippin[g] over...and...uh...bad...and somebody...gonna get hurt." Loss of ability
to produce language Loss of ability to produce language Spoken or written language is deficient Can read and understand Wernicke's aphasia Carl Wernicke

1870 Wernicke’s aphasia Example E.F. (the patient) was a willing subject for testing. When greeted with the question, "How are you today?" he responded as follows:
"Gossiping O.K. and Lords and cricket and England and Scotland battles. I don't know. Hypertension and two won cricket, bowling, batting, and catch, poor old things, cancellations maybe gossiping, cancellations, arm and argument, finishing bowling." E.G.
E.F. (the patient) was a willing subject for testing. When greeted with the question, "How are you today?" he responded as follows:
"Gossiping O.K. and Lords and cricket and England and Scotland battles. I don't know. Hypertension and two won cricket, bowling, batting, and catch, poor old things, cancellations maybe gossiping, cancellations, arm and argument, finishing bowling." Fluent Speech It means that a patient that is speaking in extended sentences, although the content of those sentences may be full of neologisms and paraphasias.

-- neologisms made up words, such as when people say “sdar” and he actually means “stop”

-- paraphasia is when people tend to says “apple”, but he actually says “ape” E.G.
E.F. (the patient) was a willing subject for testing. When greeted with the question, "How are you today?" he responded as follows:
"Gossiping O.K. and Lords and cricket and England and Scotland battles. I don't know. Hypertension and two won cricket, bowling, batting, and catch, poor old things, cancellations maybe gossiping, cancellations, arm and argument, finishing bowling." Poor auditory processing Poor auditory processing means that the person with this type of aphasia may have difficulty understanding what you are saying to him.
Patients who have WA loss the ability to understand language in written and spoken E.G.
E.F. (the patient) was a willing subject for testing. When greeted with the question, "How are you today?" he responded as follows:
"Gossiping O.K. and Lords and cricket and England and Scotland battles. I don't know. Hypertension and two won cricket, bowling, batting, and catch, poor old things, cancellations maybe gossiping, cancellations, arm and argument, finishing bowling." Grammatical speech Patients with WA would not loss all grammar of language

They still use grammatical words such as:
Article words: a/the
Conjunction: but, and...
Complex verb tensessay——said
Subordinate clauses E.G.
E.F. (the patient) was a willing subject for testing. When greeted with the question, "How are you today?" he responded as follows:
"Gossiping O.K. and Lords and cricket and England and Scotland battles. I don't know. Hypertension and two won cricket, bowling, batting, and catch, poor old things, cancellations maybe gossiping, cancellations, arm and argument, finishing bowling." Loss ability of expression WA patients always make meaningless sentences. They are unaware of both what others are saying and what themselves are saying.


Moreover, although WA patients can usually still use their right hands to write and the form of their handwriting may be normal the content of their written output is very similar to their speech. (Patrick McCaffrey) Unlike Broca's aphasics, Wernicke's aphasics tend to have anosognosia (lack of awareness) of their communication problems (Davis, 1983).
They often seem unaware of their speech problems. Or, at least, they are not concerned about them. (The occasional patient will be frustrated.) This lack of concern is indicative of the more severe cognitive problems that give Wernicke's patients a worse prognosis than Broca's. Contralateralization The brain is divided into two hemispheres, joined by a section of hard tissue called the corpus callosum (consisting of about two million nerve fibres). (Shortall, 2013) It is generally believed that the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere the right side (contra-lateralization). (Shartall. 2013) The term brain lateralization refers to the fact that the two halves of the human brain are not exactly alike.

Each hemisphere has functional specializations: some function whose neural mechanisms are localized primarily in one half of the brain.

Different cognitive functions are primarily localised on one side of the brain or other (Shortall, 2013) Lateralization
and
Handness Roger Sperry's experiment: The Wada Test: Used to detect language areas prior to brain surgery. (Shortall. 2013) From Sperry's experiment: i. 70% to 95% of humans have a left-hemisphere language specialization (Sawyer, K. R, 2012)

ii. It breaks the hypothesis of Paul Broca who suggests that a person's handedness was opposite from the specialized hemisphere.

iii. The same persentage of right- and left-handed people have language specialization in the left-hemisphere (Sawyer, K. R, 2012). From the Wada test
(Rasmuseen and Miller, 1976): i. 96% of right-handers had left-hemispheric brain specialization for language abilities
ii. 70% of left-handers also had left-brain language
iii. 15%of left-handers had language on both sides (Shortall, 2013) Freud Criticize two kinds of theries of aphasia
-- Lateralization( theory of functional localization of human brain)
-- Psychological standards Freud Claims the classification of aphasia
-- purely verbal aphasia
-- asymbolic aphasia
-- agnostic aphasia Critical
Age
Hypothesis Concept Debate Implications the subject of a debate in linguistics and language acquisition over the extent to which the ability to acquire language is biologically linked to age -- an ideal "window" of time to acquire language in a linguistically rich environment, after which further language acquisition becomes much more difficult and effortful.
-- the first few years of life is the crucial time in which an individual can acquire a first language, especially grammatical systems ( age of 5-6 ) -- evidence is limited
-- the strongest evidence is in the study of accent, where most older learners do not reach a native-like level
-- sceptical viewers suggested that CAH only applicatable to First Language Acquisition, not Second Language Acquisition
-- three concpetual mistakes: misinterpretation, misattribution, misemphasis (Marinava-Todd, 2000) The History The Definition Skepticism Three Types of Learning Neurolinguistic Programming Richard and John The Misunderstanding

Poverty of Examples

Commercial or Scientific


Five Senses
Visual and Audio Learners
So far... NLP Pros and Cons experiments & data linguistics theories PET (Positron Emission Tomography) "...after these discoveries about the multiple tasks involved in lexical access, and about the segregation between activation and suppression tasks, an important contribution has been given to the field of aphasia..." ——Aniela Improta França
(n.d.) Pros and Cons NLP in other fields... "If a suspects eyes move directly to the right this indicates the suspect is creating or adding information to something they have not heard.


...observe a left eye movement from the subject, then the subject is most likely being truthful in his statements because he is recalling known information.." —— Gary Wilson (2010) References Gary I. Wilson, "Perspective on Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP),"
The Police Chief 77 (December 2010): 40–51,
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/CPIM1210/#/40 França, A. I., Introduction to Neurolinguistics.
Retrieved from: http://www.letras.ufrj.br/clipsen/neurociencia_da_linguagem/introduction_to_neurolinguistics.pdf
Russell A. Dewey. (2007-2011). Psychology: An introduction. Retrieved from http://www.intropsych.com/ch02_human_nervous_system/wernickes_aphasia.html
What is wernicke’s aphasia?. Retrieved from http://www.theaphasiacenter.com/2012/01/what-is-wernickes-aphasia/
McCaffrey, P. Cmsd 636 neuropathologies of language and cognition. Retrieved from http://www.csuchico.edu/~pmccaffrey/syllabi/SPPA336/336unit8.html
Ren, M. Broca's and wernicke's aphasia. Retrieved from http://wenku.baidu.com/view/c50d48d726fff705cc170a30.html
Methods of Neuro-linguistic programming. Retrieved May 1, 2013 from Wikipedia:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methods_of_neuro-linguistic_programming
Sawyer, K. R. (2012). Explaining Creativity: The Science of Human Innovation (pp. 80-90). Oxford: Oxford University Press. USA; 2 edition (January 12, 2012)
Marinava-Todd, S. H., Marshall, D. B. & Snow C. E..(2000) Three misconceptions about age and L2 learning [J]. TESOL Quarterly, 2000: 34(1), 9-34.

Neuro-linguistic programming . Retrieved May 1, 2013 from Wikipedia:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuro-linguistic_programming
Full transcript