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Geography Unit 1
Transcript of Geography Unit 1
Migration and Population
Global Hazards and Climate Change Globalisation Migration and Population Global Hazards and
Climate change Unit 1 What is globalisation? Globalisation is how counties become more closely integrated, this can be economically, socially, politically or culturally. Meaning that the world is slowly becoming a global community... Through globalisation it changes distance and time. People can interact with each other more efficiently then in the past. It feels as if the world is "shrinking"... Connections are being formed with places that are far apart, the connections are becoming deeper... Globalisation has been occurring for 1000's of years, through trade and conquest e.g the Roman Empire, Goods have always been traded across the world e.g east indian company. Globalisation accelerated during 19th century with european empires such as the British and French empires, since 1980's it has accelerated more and global brands have become bigger and more powerful e.g Coke. This has started to create the global community. Population Basics:
Birth rate: The number of live births per 1000 per year
Death Rate: The number of deaths per 1000 per year
Fertility Rate: The average number of children a women will have between the ages of 15-44
Infant Mortality: The number per 1000 who die before their first birthday
Life expectancy: The average age in years a person can expect to live
Migration rate: The difference in number of immigrants and number of emigrants per 100000 per year
Population Density: The number of people per square kilometer
Natural Change: The change in population between the birth rate and death rate (no migration included)
Zero Growth Rate: When birth rate and death rate are the same. what is a DTM? Its a demographic transition model that shows population change over time. It studies how birth rate and death rate affect the total population of a country. 1.Total population is low but it is balanced due to high birth rates and high death rates.
2.Total population rises as death rates fall due to improvements in health care and sanitation. Birth rates remain high.
3.Total population is still rising rapidly. The gap between birth and death rates narrows due to the availability of contraception and fewer children being needed to work - due to the mechanisation of farming. The natural increase is high.
4.Total population is high, but it is balanced by a low birth rate and a low death rate. Birth control is widely available and there is a desire for smaller families.
5.Total population is high but going into decline due to an ageing population. There is a continued desire for smaller families, with people opting to have children later in life. The five stages of the demographic transition model... Population structure: The Population structure means the 'make up' or composition of a population. Looking at the population structure of a place shows how the population is divided up between males and females of different age groups This can differ from country altering its structure... UK 2000 UK 2025 Mozambique 2000 Mozambique 2025 This population structure shows:
Typical structure to a developed country
Low death rate
Low birth rate
Longer life expectancy
High elderly dependency
Few young dependency This population structure shows:
Typical structure to a developing country
High death rate
High birth rate
Low life expectancy
Low elderly dependency
High young dependency Popn Structure in a MEDC (more points)
Women live longer than men
Broad shape at the top shows a high proportion of people living longer
On the structure you may see bulges, this shows either a period of immigration or a baby boom years before.
Dips in the pyramid can indicate higher death rates then normal e.g war, famine or disease, or through fewer migration flows.
A narrower base shows the small number of children being born - low birth rate. Popn Structure in a LEDC (more Points)
Women live longer then men
A narrow sharper top. This shows a low proportion of people living into old age and a high death rate.
Wider base, this shows a large number of children - high birth rate.
Dips in pyramid can indicate famine, war or disease. Population in the UK since 1900 Family size - Fell during 20th century and a slow drop in fertility rate to a low of 1.74 in the 1980's now its a 2.1
Currently fifth of population is under 16 and a fifth is over 60 = a large dependent population
Life expectancy has increased from 50 in 1900 to 79 in 2010
migration between 1950's - 1970's immigrants came from british empires - 300,000 from the Caribbean, 600,000 from India and Pakistan
In the 1980's and 1990's UK was a destination for displaced people from Vietnam, Iraq and Kosovo
Since 2004 there has been an influx of Eastern Europeans as the EU expanded Changes in UK population caused by Internal and external factors... Internal Factors External Factors Family size equal rights for females and career options have seen a drop in birth rate.
The legalisation of abortion in 1967 and the use of contraceptives such as the pill have reduced fertility rate.
The establishment of the NHS in the 1948 has had an impact in increasing life expectancy.
A access to higher education has widened. There have been changes in employment, more tertiary and social status.
There has been internal migration within the UK, in particular to the south east of London. Periods of global recession, people have less money so less children this decreases the birth rate.
Global conflict and the baby boom
Less employment in dangerous fields of work
Migration EU membership has increases immigration to the UK Impacts of Aging population The dependency ratio is young people 0 - 14+ old people over 65+ divided by working people 15 - 64. A ratio of over one is high and means you have a dependent population. Social Impacts Economic impacts increased pressure on public services, such as hospitals and hospices, more carers and nurses required, unpaid carers will have financial and social pressures.
Unequal distribution of older people e.g Eastnbourne or Falmouth have more retired pressuring local services. Other age groups may miss out on facilities (youth clubs or education)
Due to looking after dependents, working population may have fewer children making the problem amplify for later generations.
Due to the low state pension, many pensioners may face poverty due to the fact they are living beyond their life expectancy. Overtime The workforce will shrink, this means less people to pay tax but more people who need tax spent on them, some groups in particular the young or disabled may miss out on funding.
With less people to tax they may have to pay more to make up for smaller numbers, this could create political friction.
One positive is that the grey pound may be utilised and targeted by companies (saga holiday)
The baby boomers born between 1947 - 1960 is a large group of the UK's population, they are now stating to retire. This is a major challenge for the government to provide pensions and services in the next 10 years. Strategies to manage aging UK population Is to increase the gae of retirement. currently 65 men and 60 for women but by 2015 will rise to 67 and 62 and will continue to rise over the century.
Encouraging immigration of working age people to the UK. The recent 2004 influx of workers has helped in short term, reversing the dependency ratio.
Encourage more women to have children, better maternity and paternity pay, working tax credits, state pensions to have career breaks.
Offering employment opportunities for over 55s
which can utilise their skills and experience. Population Migration Migration Terminology
Economic Migrant - people who move to find work or a better paid job (voluntary)
Asylum Seeker and Refugees (displaced person due to an event) - People who move because they are at risk (often war, famine or political persecution e.g Sudan) Asylum seekers apply for permission to live in a country, but if it is refused they are deported, (refugee is accepted).
Illegal Immigrants - enter or stay in country without permission, it may be economic or due to persecution.
They failed asylum seekers or they entered across borders illegally.
Some immigrants are involuntary or forced this can be human trafficking though prostitution or illegal work Migration Into Europe:
Make up for labour shortage (Turks to western Germany during 1960's)
Former colonies e.g France and Senegal or England with Caribbean, Pakistan or Indian workers.
Shared Language e.g UK to Australia (and vise versa)
Asylum seekers e.g Sweden Iraq 2003) EU migration has consequences... Demographic can change the population structure of Host and Source country. The source will have a lower number of workers and people or reproductive age, the host will have the opposite.
Economic workers send back money to their source countries. This is called remittance.
Social issues such as pressure on employment, education and health care, plus often do very dangerous jobs
Culture can lead to racial tensions (Paris riots 2009) but can create positive hybrid cultures
Political governments can change policy of immigration and introduce harsher laws, racial tensions can be stirred by far right groups such as BNP and EDL UK migration to Spain and Mediterranean During the 1980's and the 1990's there was migration from England to Spain (less number to France and Italy), some were permanent settlers other fro several months of the year. Numbers could be as high as 800 000. Since 2008 and global economic crisis about 15% of Brits have returned to the UK due to poor exchange rate and pension issues. Push: Pull The rising cost of living in the UK, in particular fuels cost and low interest rate.
The UK climate is changeable, wet and cold winter (sun seekers).
Lack of employment opportunities in the UK. Lower cost of living in Spain.
Spain has a warm regular climate and can help life expectancy.
Previous holiday experiences.
Opportunities to start business. Why is it easy to migrate?:
The incrase in budget airlines ( e.g Easy Jet and Ryamair) makes visiting and travel more affordable.
Improved communication chap telephone calls, SKYPE, facetime.
More socially acceptable to move away from family. The Consequences for UK and Spain Host: +
Economically Spain can benefit from "grey pound" spending. This can create a positive multiplier effect in areas through new construction and provision of services for the UK migrants.
Spain can also benefit from additional tourism from visiting friends and family and this may lead to greater migration in the long term. Host: -
Spain will have a greater number of over 65+. They will require healthcare and care services as they get older, although UL spanish residents have less rights this will put additional strain on the Spanish public finances.
In Spanish local elections UK migrants can vote, this can create social tensions and give more services to the UK migrants.
UK migrants sometimes create enclaves/ghettos and reject elements of spanish culture. Source: -
Socially grandparents provide free childcare and support which would be lost often meaning that a parent would then have to reduce work and income.
The loss of the grey pound being spent in England. This will create a negative multiplier effect as money that used to be spent in England is being used abroad.
Valuable experience and workplace skills are lost from the economy. Source: +
Reduced healthcare costs overtime due to retirement migration.
Less potential tax burden as the dependency ratio evens out. less pensions to support.
Less competition for housing and jobs for remaining UK citizens. Poland to UK migration Reasons: EU laws make it easy to live and work in other EU countries. In 2004 10 new countries such as Lithuania and Latvia joined the EU (post accession) including Poland. Between 2004 and 2007 more 600 000 poles migrated to the UK, most were economic migrants.
Push factors: High employment 19% in 2004, low average wages especially in manual and professional jobs (doctor), low housing availability, poor entrepreneurship opportunities.
Pull factors: easy access into country. The UK, Sweden and Ireland allowed unlimited migration, good exchange rate at the time, this boosted remittance value, plenty of well paid jobs particularly in the trades (plumbing and construction or 3D jobs) and healthcare, family and friends who have moved pre 2004 several established communities of poles. Consequences for UK and Poland Host: +
Polish workers have helped to generate more tax income to help pay for the dependent and aging UK population.
In areas such as Peterborough and Wolverhampshire Polish communities have flourished, this has had a positive cultural influence.
Skills gap in the UK workforce had been filled helping the economy grow. Host: -
Most migrants were concentrated in small areas of the country such as Peterborough, this has put strain on social, educational and health care services.
Here has been some resentments stirred up by UK press about Polish workers taking UK jobs, but in reality this is unfounded. Source: +
Polish economy can grow due to remittance being sent back, in 2006 this was £3.5billion.
In Poland there are now less problems with housing shortages and access to higher education due to reduced competition from places. Source: -
Polish population has shrunk by nearly 0.5%. The birth rate has decreased due to most migrants are reproductive age. This could impact later on the dependency ratio also tax and pension burdens for remaining polish workers.
Lack of workers has meant that he polish economy has stagnated, in comparison to other eastern european neighbours.
Some Polish manual workers get there experience and qualification in Poland. Once the course is over and know how to construct, plumb or be a mechanic they leave and go to England to get more money. This Leaves a Brain Drain in the area. in 2008 many polish migrants have started to return to Poland, sue to shrinking UK economy. Less jobs are available, the Polish economy is growing, job and work opportunities, the exchange rate is less favorable. Rural Urban Migration China:
In 1990 74% out of the chinese population lived in rural areas. Now this is 56%. A decrease of 300 million people.
Most people have moved to the east coast and towards cities such as Shanghi. There are now over 95 cities in China.
The main triggers for rural - urban migration have been foreign investment from TNC's such as Apple, Microsoft, Ford and Wal Mart, Larfe factories are located along the east coast. China has created physical road links such as highway 312 to link the west and the east country and provide a link for rural to urban migration. As agriculture has become mechanised less workers are required rurally. Two sustainable cities Dongtan and Curitbia: Dongtan (not yet built) China Curitbia Brazil a design of an eco- friendly city planned to be built near Shanghi on the west coast of China.
New home built will be carbon neutral. Energy will come from all homes having a solar panel and homes will be well insulated.
Other buildings will have power provided by wind turbines and bio fules will be produced from rice husks.
Landfill will be kept to a minimum and the gas methane will be burnt.
Some of the population in Shanghi will be moved to Dongtan to ease housing burdens in the city.
There will be a high promotion of green transport banning petrol or diesel vehicles (this happens in some german towns already). - The city will have new cycle ways, walk ways and canals.
At first the cost will be drastic but in the long term is this plan has been put forward it can reduce air pollution meaning that it can cut healthcare costs and bills in the long term.
If this plan is successful a further 120 planned cities like this one will be built. The capital and largest city of the state Parana.
Approximately the population is 1.75 million.
In 2010 the city was awarded the Global sustainable city award.
The City has the highest recycling rate in the world - 70%
The public transport(bus system) is so good that care traffic reduced by 30% while the population trebled in a twenty year period.
Curirbia has the worlds largest down-town-pedestrianised-shopping areas in the world.
Curibia has built the a large number of beautiful parks to control floods rather than concrete canals. To cut the grass they use sheep, this is cheaper then lawn mowing the grass and it is more eco-friendly.
The average income per person has gone from less than the Brazilian average in the 1970's to 66% greater than the Brazilian average. Push and pull factors in China: Push Pull High unemployment, machanisation has reduced needs for manual labour.
In 2007 160 million rural workers were unemplyed.
In rural areas there is a gender imbalance with 60/40 split in some areas, males need to move to find a bride or life time partner.
There is still absolute poverty in rural areas.
Lower standards of living including often poor education opportunities, and healthcare.
Corruption is widespread in some rural areas. Higher employment and more opportunities fro semi or low skilled agricultural workers.
Higher wages often 300% more then in rural areas, this difference is growing and creating a wealth gap.
Higher Standards of living, better education opportunities including university.
Better doctor ratio in urban areas and more specialist treatments - better healthcare.
Impact of china TV and Media which portray urban areas in a more positive light than rural.
Better entertainment and lifestyle opportunities. Mega cities - A city with 10 millions people or more. Cycle of urbanisation:
Urbanisation: process of moving from rural to urban areas, now only happening in LEDC's and RIC's, this gives rise to the chanty towns (squatter settlements)
Suburbanisation: The movement of people from the city to the outskirts of the city, this is due to people wanting more space and better transport links. In developing cities the rich often live in the suburbs.
Counter Urbanisation: The movement of people out of urban areas to rural, linked to improved transport and communication, and high urban house prices, this is occurring in NIC's and MEDS's.
Re-urbanisation: The movement of people back into redeveloped urban areas, This occurs in MEDC's particular USA nad the West of Europe, gentrification can occur in some areas, it is mainly young people who move for the entertainment and cultural opportunities. Megacity- Mumbai Mumbai is a mega city in the state of Maharashtra, it has a population of 20 million and is growing by 300 000 people a year. The population density is over 200 000 per km2. It has an international airport and good road and rail links. It is a cultural center for India due to Bollywood and a key port for import and export of goods mainly textiles and manufacturing.
The city houses are a range of international call centers especially once for the UK finance companies. It services have also grown due to the high level of IT graduates produced in India universities. Suburbs are being constructed along transport links. Dharavi ( 1 millions pop) Slum result of push/pull factors. Poor conditions:
untreated sewerage leading to water borne diseases such as Typhoid and Cholera - lack of clean water
No land rights so hard to invest in housing and services
high informal sector but means little tax revenue for city to invest in area
housing is often for habitation including fire risk and cramped conditions
settlements at risk during monsoon season, being washed away or contaminated with unsafe flood water (sewage and chemicals)
Other cities with similar slums can be Penjaringan in Jakarta and Mokoko in Lagos, they have similar problems but coupled with gang trouble and violence
Lack of education for inhabitants. Possible solutions to Dharavi and other slums: Solutions should use green (env) and brown (human) agenda and try to be sustainable.
Introduce services including sanitation and electricity, but use local experience to get a design which fits with the slum
create jobs involving recycling of materials
land reform to let slum dwellers opportunities to purchase land, this will see greater investment in housing
create jobs linked to manufacturing and the service sector, these jobs can be taxed and the taxed money can be used for reinvestment into the slum
The Society for the Promotion of Area Recourse Centers, better known as SPARC, this is am NGO that supports the efforts of local people to get better housing for their many members. Ideas generated from local people supported by this charity include adding extra flooring to buildings so that all the family members can be accommodated in the dame building
Help introduce better disease preparedness for slum dwellers, for example in Dharavi have better warning systems for monsoon approach
In slums these should be better education, this can try and break the power of gangs so that people have better job opportunities for potential recruits
For a number of environmental campaigners, areas such as Dharavi - with their small scale production units and recycling industries - are seen as the "green lungs" of the modern metropolis
Create better access to healthcare in particular family planning clinics
Invest more in rural areas to slow down urbanisation in Brazil opportunities are giving to people to develop the Amazon London MEDC megacity Background:
Greater London has a population of 13 million, served by 5 airports and good sea and rail links. It has a population density of 5000 per km2.
It is the financial capital of the world, with jobs moving from secondary to tertiary sector over the past 30yrs. many TNCs have their HQ in London such as HSBC. Tourism is another sector which generates huge income with 17 million visitors in 2009. The city is in the re urbanisation phase, Notting Hill and Islington are example of gentrification. The city grows by about 60,000 people a year mainly through immigration. Docklands is an example of regeneration the 2012 Olympics is an example of rebranding. Problems Sustainable Solution London problems and sustainable solutions can be applied to other cities Housing shortages due to price and new builds often new developments will build flats (Docklands) rather than houses as they make more profit per unit. This can create counter urbanisation
Large ecological footprint cities consume huge amounts of power and other resources including freshwater, this will grow as the population in the city grows.
Transport issues increase affluence increases car ownership, public transport systems may not work, congestion creates air pollution which impacts on health of the city inhabitants
The city may be at risk from climate change London is at risk from a storm surge down the Thames (Barrier is obsolete), population is at greater risk.
Global economic downturn has created social and political unrest the Aug 2011 riots were an example of this. Build more carbon neutral homes to reduce fossil fuel use (use solar panels) BedZed housing development is an example. Recycling water in homes, but at present these houses are more expensive to construct.
Greater use of renewable source, in London more off shore windfarms are planned in the North Sea, in LA huge solar power farms in the desert have been created. Self sufficiency in power is key for sustainable growth.
In London just finished a water treatment facility powered by renewables, this can provide clean water for 800,000 homes. Desalination may be another option.
Recycle more, offer incentives such reduced council tax builds, incinerate waste for electricity.
Provide efficient and cheap public transport, bike schemes such as London, Amsterdam and Barcelona. Tram/guided bus systems ro create congestion charging zones reducing air pollution. Globalisation has accelerated because of 4 main things... 1. TNC's or Trans National Corporations, they produce, sell or are located in 2 or more countries e.g Sony or FOXCONN, They generate huge sums of money, oil companies such as Shell and BP have greater GDP than most countries on earth. TNC's bring investment into countries (foreign direct investment FDI) spread new technologies, promote cultures (American). Due to potential job creation, capital and technology TNC's can have potential influence. TNC's continue to grow often through acquisation and mergers. They are a key driving force behind globalisation, due to their political, economical and cultural interactions. 2. New Markets as RIC (recently industrialised countries) and NIC's (Newly Industrialised Countries) improve GDP and living standards new markets have emerged. Global share trading has expanded into RIC's like Mumbai in India and Shanghai in China have growth of new markets in particular China. India and parts of Africa present opportunities for growth, which can accelerate globaliastion. 3. Improved Communications, communications can mean transport (jet air planes, high speed rail) or informations exchanges (internet SMS, social networking) transport speeds has been improving incrementally, this means people have access to more products and are better connected. Electronic communication allows instant exchange of information. Business cam interact from any location on the globe as can people shrinking the world. 4. International Organisations they can bring money, people and info together thus accelerating globalisation. The world Bank offers money to poorer nations to develop, it loans development projects (Kenya $2.2 billion in 23 projects or Malawi $450 million in 13 projects - these projects an be infrastructure such as dams.) - this can then ultimately lead to investment into the country. The IMF (International Monetary fund) regulates global finances, these loans can avert crises such as Greece or Spain, their main function is to encourage global trade. The WTO (World Trade Organisation), regulates trade between countries, it tries to reduce barriers and taxes between countries to encourage greater global trade. This should increase global trade. Global Groupings... LEDC's - Least developed countries, around 50 countries such as Ethiopia or Mozambuque, low incomes, weak economy, low education provision, High debt levels, economy based on agriculture.
LEDC's - Less developed countries, such as Botswana or Bangladesh, improving economies, primary education provision, less debt, economy moving into secondary sector.
NIC's - Newly Industrialised countries, fast growing economy in manufacturing and exporting, agriculture sector has shrunk, good example would be the Tiger economies of South Korea, Shanghai and taiwan, good educational investment, many of these countries have good R+D and moved into the tertiary or quaternary sector since mid 1990's China whould also be in this group.
RIC's - Recently industrialised countries like above but it happens in 1990s onwards Vietnam and India would be examples.
FCC's - Former Communist Countries, middle income, but many have stagnant populations, many have good natural resources such as Russia or Ukraine.
MEDC's - More economically developed countries, developed tertiary and quaternary sectors, manufacturing declining expert in high tech products. Most TNC's are situated in these countries, USA and Germany are good examples. The G8 is a group of the most powerful economies on the planet excluding China.
OPEC - Organisation of Petroleum exporting countries. 13 members including Saudi Arabia, Angola and Venezuela, very powerful to be a member must export more oil than import.
OECD - Organisation of economic cooperation and development has 30 of the richest and most powerful countries, discuss political,social economic and environment problems.
BRIC's - Brazil, Russia, India and China, The 4 of the biggest economies of the earth and increasing a powerful group in the world affairs. but also more recently BRIICS including Indonesia and South Africa - Mexico is country that is becoming an emerging BRIC country. Trade Blocs... They are groups of countries that make
agreements to reduce barriers. Often this
is achieved by reducing tariffs (a tax or
duty paid on a particular class of imports
or exports) or taxes on imported goods.
This would allow countries to tade more,
improving co operation between them.
EU trade bloc = list of benefits:
1. economies of Scale, access to larger markets, increased scales, buy raw materials in bulk so can negotiate discounts.
2. Comparative advantage countries can concerntarte on developing specific industries, for example UK finace and banking, Germany = high tech manufacturing, Spain and Italy = car manufaturing.
3. NAFTA (the North American Free Trade Agreement) Another example of a Trade Bloc between America, Canada and Mexico. This trade bloc involes USA providing money, Canada with raw materials supplied by the tar sands and Mexico with cheap labour. TNC
- Trans National Company On the other had you can argue that the grueling process of TNC's and globalisation is a neccessary evil for a country to become more of a developed county. e.g Taiwan went through this process of TNCs taking advantage of the countrys poor conditions with TNC companies like Nike. Over time the country gained more money and is a country that develops highly in computers and new softwere i.e acer.
TNCs can also create cultural links. They create common patterns of consumprion such as MC donald's menu, people feel linked together.
They create links between countries in different ways...
1. Mergers when two similar size companies become one, eg Exxon and Mobil becoming Exxon Mobil and Currys and PC world - This can create links between countries.
2. Acquisitions when one company buys another e.g Ford buying Volvo or Aston Martin.
Using Sub contractors, TNCs use foreign companies to produce their products i.e Apple using Foxconn.
3. FDI (Foreign direct investment) this gives a TNC long term investment in a country like Nike in Vietnam or GAP in Bangladesh.
Criticisms of TNC's =
Leakage = most profits go to the HQ of the TNC.
Footloose and exploit economic conditions in countries and then move to more favourible conditions.
They can exert political influence over governments in poorer countries.
Meaning that a product can be made in sweatshop like conditions, little health and safty and paid bear minimum to exert more profit.
If the country demand better working conditions and/or higher pay then the company can move else where to make more of a profit anf take advantage of another country or government.
Hong Kong:- Rice Burger Greece: Big Tiger Shrimp meal of crispy breaded shrimp
Canada: Poutine - cheese and gravy sauce on chips Japan - Shrimp Burger Malaysia: Bubur Ayam porridge topped with chicken strips, scallions, ginger, fried shallots and diced chiles
TNCs also allow countries to experience
other cultures alongside with their own.
e.g in England we get many Chinese and Indian
restaurants. We have had these kind of food dine in places for so long that its almost part of English culture - it can also involve fashion i.e the English Satchel bag or the Indian styled Harem pants. On the other hand you can also argue that it is an invsion of other cultures, taking a countries culture away i.e American television dominates over english tv and instead of an British country it can just lead to a mini USA. Global Winners and Global Losers... Global networks allow people, trade, money and information to flow around the globe. They can create air travel, TNCs and communication systems. Switched "on" Places: Switched "off" Places: These are highly connected places, they can be important cities in RICs or even LEDC's. Singapore is a Global Hub (a hub is a place that forms the effective center of an activity, region or network) as a financial, manufacturing and tourist centre.
People in switched on places are large consumers and producers of goods due to their stong connections.
They usually have a high ecological footprint and have a big impact on the environment due to their high levels of production and consumption.
These are countries or places that are poortly connected as they may be remote i.e Bhutan in the Himalayas is landlocked, where tourism and internet access are limited, economy is based on subsistence. North Korea due to political influences would be another example.
Some money can flow into switched off countries in the form of aid, but there is little trade with country.
People in switched off places do not consume or produce much due to being poorly connected ro global networks so are not potential markets for TNCs.
Low energy usage and low ecological footprint. Countries that are "switched on" normally have an equal exchange of trade, money, tourism, info ect increasing the multiplyer effect especially in tourism or manufacturing.
Dependent unqual echange of trade, money ect tend to happen in countries that are "swithced off". Technology can make the world more connected... Telecommunications such as the internet and air travel create global networks.
Ryanair is an example of shrinking the world through tade. Cheap accessible through internet and flies accross Europe to a range of destinations.
Flight destinations become hubs and become connected and have multiplyer effects boosting the local economy and become swithced on.
Trade can be encourages and increased cultural exposure through visiting different countries.
Good example of cities which have benefited are Riga in Latvia, Valencia in Spain and Bratislava in Slovakia.