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Child Development Between 3-5 years old!

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Sara Elsbury-Robertson

on 22 March 2015

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Transcript of Child Development Between 3-5 years old!

Child Development: between 3-5 years old
By Sara Elsbury-Robertson
Learning Approaches
Language Development
At 3 years old, a child should talk clear enough that a stranger can understand them most of the time. At this age, they know their name and the name of all of their friends. A 3 year old can name most common things they use daily. They can also follow 2 to 3 step instructions, things like: go get that ball, put it in the bin, and then close the bin. They will start referring to themselves as "I" or "me" and other people as "him" or "her." At 3 they will start using plural words, like cats and dogs to describe multiples. They will also start to talk in 2-3 sentences.
A 4 year old will start to use basic proper grammar. They will be able to sing songs and poems from memory. They should be able to tell you their first and last name, as well as tell you short simple stories.
At the age of 5 years old, they have the ability to speak very clearly so everyone can understand them. They can start to talk to you in proper tense; like my friend is coming over tomorrow, or yesterday I watched a cool movie. They can also tell you a story using full and complete sentences.
Social and Emotional development
At 3 years old a child is starting to learn to share with their friends and understanding what belongs to other children. They understand when a friend is feeling sad or got hurt. A 3 year old will try to comfort a sad or hurt friend. They really start to show all range of emotions at this age.
By 4 years old they start getting along with friends really well. A 4 year old will also start to enjoy new things and try things they haven't before. They will love to learn new games and activities at this age. They will start using their imagination while playing "house" and other make-believe games. They will start to talk with you about things they like or are interested in; like TV shows, games, friends, or places they went. A 4 year old typically still has fictional beliefs, like Santa Claus and the Tooth Fairy. They can't tell the difference between make-belief and reality.
5 years old, is when they start to tell the difference between make-belief and real life. They know Frozen and Batman aren't real and they are just fictional stories. At 5, kids start to really want to make friends and they also will want to please their friends. They will be more willing to follow the rules and do what they are asked of by their caregivers. At this age they will start to understand the differences between girls and boys. Children at this age will start doing things more independently and won't need so much assistance from adults.
Physical Development
At 3 years old they can start to climb up playground equipment on their own. They will be able to run easily and won't trip over themselves as often. A 3 year old child has the ability to learn how to peddle a tricycle on their own. They should also be able to start learning how to kick and throw a ball by themselves.
A 4 year old can start standing or hopping on one foot for at least 2 seconds. At this stage, they're able to catch a bouncy ball the majority of the time if put to the test. They will start to pour drinks on their own and can also cut their food with adult supervision.
At the age of 5, they have the body coordination to stand on one foot for more than 10 seconds with their eyes closed. They gain interest in easy games and activities. At this age they can hop, and maybe skip, easier than before. A 5 year old can also do a somersault, once taught how to. They really can start to understand rules in the simple games and activities they cooperate in. They would be able to play Simon Says, Green Light Red Light, and Duck, Duck, Goose. They are able to climb and swing on their own at this age. Their arms and legs really start to work together and develop hand-eye coordination. A 5 year old will be able to and should be able to use the restroom on their own. They really start becoming physically independent at this age.
Cognitive
Learning/Thinking
For a 3 year old, they should be playing with toys that have levers, buttons and moving parts. They should be able to play make-believe games with dolls, toy animals and their friends. At 3 they should be able to do 3-4 piece puzzles on their own. If you ask them to hand you two blocks they should be able to get you two blocks. A 3 year old should be able to build a tower taller than 5 blocks high. They should also understand turning pages of a book one at a time. They should be able to screw and unscrew lids on a jar, along with opening and shutting doors.
At 4 years old they will start to understand the idea of counting and are able to count 1 through 20. They will be able to draw a person with 2-4 body parts and also start using kids scissors. At this age they have the ability to copy capital letters and name most letters of the alphabet. A 4 year old should be starting to play simple board and card games. When reading a story with them, they will start to tell you what they think will happen next in the story. At this age they will also start to understand time and what happens in different parts of their day; things like outside time, lunch time, nap time and when their parent will be there to pick them up.
At 5 years old, a child should be able to print most of their letters and numbers. They should be able to copy all the basic shapes and start to know the names of those shapes. A 5 year old can count 10 or more things and draw a person with 6 or more parts. They should also know about things people use every day, things like money, food, cars, and parents going to work.
For a 3 year old, the learning approach should be hands-on and the children should be very engaged. The child should have a very structured environment, as well as the same routine and rules implemented everyday. They need to get into the swing of coming into the classroom by themselves or waking up every morning knowing what they need to do next, or what is going to happen next. Just like adults, we need structure to have a calm and successful life. We need to find a routine that will work for us all, that eliminates distractions. Encourage them to get involved in the day-to-day life; things like they get to choose one center or toy they get to play with. Acknowledge when your student starts thinking or playing in a more complex way and assist only in a way that they are solving the problem on their own. At 4 years old I think it's important to have a real solid dramatic play area, where they have real items from adult's daily lives, including a full kitchen, fake food, fake money, etc. Be sure to have a full range of toys that have a lot of different characteristics and culture. When addressing a problem, try to always think and talk through their problems with them. This is the stage where their problem solving skills should start to be molded. Start using open-ended questions and ask them what they think the solution to the problem is. At the age of 5 years old, you really want to start utilizing ways of boosting their self-esteem, confidence, and their sense of independence. Start supporting the idea of them doing things on their own and not helping them so much with day-to-day obstacles and activities. Be sure to always be positive when teaching them to learn or problem solve. We don't want them to feel discouraged or feel like they are failing. Be aware of what each of your children's levels are in your class, and stretch the ones that are able, and support the less capable.
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