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GCSE PE - St Edmund's


Alistair Wells

on 16 April 2013

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Transcript of GCSE PE - St Edmund's

Mr Wells
Monday Period 3 & 4 Room C2
Tuesday Period 1 Room C2
Wednesday Period 1 & 2 Practical GCSE PE Split into 4 different UNITS
Units are B451, B452, B453 and B454 Overview of the Course Unit B451
An Introduction to
Physical Education
1 hour/60 marks
External Assessment
Written Examination

Unit B452
Practical Performance
and Analysis 1
60 marks

Controlled Assessment
Two practical performances from
two different categories, plus
Analysing Lifestyle task. Unit B454
Practical Performance
and Analysis 2
60 marks

Controlled Assessment
Two practical performances from
two different categories, plus
Analysing Performance task.

Unit B453
Developing Knowledge
in Physical Education
1 hour/60 marks
External Assessment
Written Examination Unit B451 introduces candidates to Physical Education through three areas of study:

1 Key concepts in Physical Education
2 Key processes in Physical Education
3 Opportunities, pathways and participation in Physical Education. UNIT B451 Unit B453 develops candidates’ knowledge of Physical Education and the concepts, processes and
opportunities which are covered in unit B451 through four areas of study:

1. Developing skills, techniques and motivation
2. Developing physical and mental capacity
3. Informed decision making using the principles of training and safe exercise
4. Opportunities, pathways and participation in Physical Education. Unit B452 Unit B453 Unit B453 develops candidates’ knowledge of Physical Education and the concepts, processes and
opportunities which are covered in unit B451 through four areas of study:

1. Developing skills, techniques and motivation
2. Developing physical and mental capacity
3. Informed decision making using the principles of training and safe exercise
4. Opportunities, pathways and participation in Physical Education. Unit B454 Candidates are internally assessed through controlled assessment in the roles of performer and/
or coach/leader or official. Candidates are required to demonstrate effective performance, the use
of tactics or techniques and the ability to observe the rules and conventions in two chosen activities
under applied conditions in each unit and assessment is carried out by the teacher using generic
assessment criteria and activity-specific links to these criteria. In unit B454 candidates can be assessed in any two activities but they cannot repeat an activity
in the same role that was assessed in unit B452 – i.e. they cannot be a performer in football in
B452 and a performer in football again in B454, but they could be a coach in football in B452 and a
performer in football in B454 or vice versa. Creativity Key Concepts in Physical Education Sports (choose 4): Association Football
Gaelic Football
Ice Hockey
Roller Hockey
Rugby League
Rugby Union
Water Polo
Dance Cricket
Softball Archery
Eton Fives
Table Tennis
Volleyball Figure Skating
Rhythmic Gymnastics
Trampolining Boxing
Tae Kwon Do Cross-Country Running
Resistance Training
Track and Field Athletics Canoeing/Kayaking
Hill Walking and Campcraft
Horse Riding
Mountain Biking
Rock Climbing
WindSurfing Any questions?? PREP
Research which sports you would like to do for your assessments.
Remember you need 4! Next lesson......Key Concepts in PE! To explore and experiment with techniques and tactics to produce an efficient and effective outcome.
Decision Making
Different Tactics The relationship between skill, the selection and application of skills, tactics and the readiness of the body and mind to cope with physical activity.

Learned skills
Link movements
Mental Approach Competence Performance Using physical competence and knowledge and understanding of physical activity to produce effective outcomes when participating in physical activity.

Task Related
Understanding of the game
Effective Understanding the positive contribution that regular, fit for purpose activity makes to the mental and physical health of an individual.

Link between physical activity and health
Less prone to illness Healthy Active Lifestyles TASK: Identify all the KEY CONCEPTS for physical education and give a practical example for each. Key Processes in Physical Education Essential physical and mental skills that pupils need to learn in order to make progress. Developing Skills and Techniques Decision Making Physical and Mental Capacity Evaluating and Improving Informed Choices about Active, Healthy Lifestyles Developing Skills in PE Refine and Adapt skills into techniques Developing a range of skills to use Precision, control and fluency in skills Decision Making Select and use tactics and strategies effectively in different creative, competitive and challenging situations. Refine and adapt ideas in response to changing circumstances. Recognising hazards and making decisions about how to control them. Physical and Mental Capacity Developing the physical strength, stamina, speed and flexibility to cope with the demands of different activities.

The mental determination to succeed. Evaluating and Improving Analyse performance in physical activities and identifying strengths and weaknesses. Making decisions about how to improve your own and others performances and acting upon these decisions. Important that you understand what the performer wants to achieve. TASK: Identify 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses for your own sport. Then explain how you might be able to improve them. Informed Choices on Healthy Lifestyle Identify the best types of physical activity that are suited to you and the types of role you might like to take on. Making choices about the involvement in healthy physical activity. Prep! Answer the following questions on today's lesson:

1. What is meant by the decision making process in physical education? (3 marks)
2. Identify and explain three processes in physical education and describe an activity where they might be shown. (6 marks)
3. Describe the concept Creativity in physical education, giving practical examples throughout your answer. (4 marks) ****IN FOR NEXT MONDAY 24TH SEPTEMBER!**** Finally.... Copy down the pyramid and fill in the sections. What you have learnt today... What you have been reminded of... What you would like to know more about... Developing Skills and Techniques Key Process 1 The specification demands that you are able to describe these skills and also to show how each can be measured and analysed. Use your practical experience in lessons and clubs to help you with these descriptions. Developing Skills and Techniques Fundamental Motor Skills When a player performs, for example, a pass in football, he or she shows a technically good movement. This movement is called a motor skill. Fundamental skills are skills such as: THROWING, CATCHING, RUNNING AND KICKING. These skills are the platform for which we can build the more advanced skills needed in our chosen sports. Developed during 'toddler years' and is the main basis of many types of physical activity. Running Technique of running is often decided on whether fast short distance running is required or a slower longer distance running. Poor running technique can lead to injuries. Essential for many physical activities especially those that involve a ball. Throwing Events such as the shot put and discus orginated from Greece over 2,000 years ago! Throwing is not just about brute strength but more about the correct, fluent technique. If not thrown correctly, athletes can cause serious injury to themselves or others when participating in sports such as the javelin. Used in a variety of physical activities, the most common being football. Correct technique and accuracy are the most important elements of this motor skill. Kicking Football kicking techniques include shooting and passing, moving up to the more advanced skills such as bending a free kick around a wall or an overhead kick. The non-kicking leg provides support and should be slightly bent as you kick. This fundamental motor skill is an event in it's own right (long jump, triple jump). It is also a basic requirement for many other physical activities. Jumping TASK: Write down as many teaching points to the triple jump....(e.g. Fast run up) Hitting A very general fundamental motor skill that can be used in a wide range of physical activities. Usually involves use of a hitting equipment (bat or racket), therefore this action requires good co-ordination. Hitting can also involve another person, such as boxing, this involves a great deal of technique. TASK: Write down as many coaching points of a football free kick as you can. PREP Exam questions on last week's lessons.

Make sure you take a note of the marks available for each question!

****Deadline: MONDAY 1ST OCTOBER 2012!!!!***** Recap - Fundamental Motor Skills
Can you name all FIVE?
Now give a sporting example for each. Key Process 1 - Developing Skills and Techniques LEARNING MOVEMENT SKILLS Practice and Rehearsal Various definitions of learning, however, experience gives us knowledge, which influences the way we behave. Motor skills are larning in 3 main ways:

Making associations or links with stimuli.
Trial and error
Observation and copying When learning a motor skill for a certain activity we often PRACTISE repetitive drills. This repetition encourages the movement to become automatic. The response of the participant become CONDITIONED when they are associated with a particular stimulus. Practical Example -

A hockey player dribbling the ball recognises a clear opening to the goal. He/she runs into that opening to take a shot in an almost automatic response. This response has been practised many times in training when the stimulus of the opening becomes clear. Trial and Error Trial and error learning, sometimes called operant conditioning. This involves the shaping of behaviour and skill through the use of reinforcement. If a reward is given when a certain skill or behaviour takes place then learning is much quicker. This is COMPLETE REINFORCEMENT. If a reward is given after a number of correct responses then learning takes longer but lasts longer. This is PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT. Teach a serve in badminton you would put down a large hoop in the area that a serve is most effective. You then ask the player to try and serve into that hoop. After several successful practice sessions you would increasingly make the hoop smaller to encourage the player to serve into a smaller target. After a while you would remove the target altogether and so the player is now 'conditioned into making that serve. Positive and Negative Reinforcement This is the name given to the use of reward to encourage behaviour to be repeated and to make learning more likely.
In terms of teaching and the learning of motor skills positive reinforcement can be in a number of forms.... Punishment has been argued to have the same effect in modifying behaviour, however, this can also have a detrimental side effect such as anxiety, lack of motivation and depression. What are your thoughts? In your sporting experience do you respond better to negative or positive reinforcement? Observational Learning Many believe that behaviour is learned in social situations and that responses are not just linked to association but influenced by other people. The person whose behaviour is being observed is called the ROLE MODEL and observational learning is often referred to be as MODELLING. When teaching skills it is the demonstration process that is particularly important.

Demonstrations are extremely important in the acquisition of new skills. This is dependent on the observers attention, visualisation, retention, motor reproduction and motivation. Paying Attention To be able to imitate or copy a demonstration the performer must pay attention and focus on the important moves or cues.
If there are problems in the copying of learned behaviour it is often because the observer has become distracted when watching. RETENTION: For a visual image to be stored permanetly, there must be rehearsal and good memory organisation. Soring this information is known as 'retention'. Motor Reproduction The observer must be physically able to imitate the skill being observed.
There must be a number of trials to get the feel of the skill.
In older children there is more muscular development so it is more likely for the model's behaviour to be copied in more complex actions. Motivation The levels of motivation is very important when learning a new skill or technique.
We copy skills and techniques performed by others because we are motivated to achieve success and our drive to be accepted by others. Feedback Can be given during the performance of a motor skill or after its completion.
It is most effective if given close to the performance so the performance is fresh in the participant's mind. There are several forms of feedback: Continuous feedback
Terminal feedback
Knowledge of results
Knowledge of performance
Internal/Intrinsic feedback
External/Extrinsic feedback
Negative Feedback Two types of feedback are most important in sports performance.....

Can you guess which two?? Knowledge of Results This feedback is external and come from the performer seeing the result of their actions or from another person, usually a coach or teacher.
There can be very little learning without this type of feedback, especially in the early stages of skill acquisition. Knowledge of Performance This involves the pattern of movement that has taken, or is taking place. It is normally associated with external feedback but can be gained through KINAESTHETIC AWARENESS. Reinforcement is essential for effective skill learning and feedback serves as a good reinforcer. A need or drive to do something with determination; for example, to go to a regular fitness class, to do more walking, to keep turning up to hockey practice, to try hard and win your next football game because you want to feel that you have done your best. Motivation When two athletes of very similar ability race against each other the winner is invariably the one who is better motivated. Intrinsic Motivation This is the inner drive or need to do well and succeed to feel good and enjoy the activity. Intrinsic motives include fun, enjoyment and the satisfaction that is experienced by achieving something. Extrinsic Motivation This is the drive or need that is caused by motives that are external or environmental. These motives are rewards that can be tangible or intangible. Rewards that include badges, prize money etc are TANGIBLE rewards.
Rewards that involve getting first place in the league or getting praise from parents are INTANGIBLE rewards. Is this extrinsic or intrinsic motivation?? Ego Motivation and Task Motivation Another way of describing extrinsic and intrinsic motivation is either ego or task motivation. Ego Motivation Exercising or playing sport because you want to win or want to beat others (extrinsic or intrinsic???). Task Motivation Exercising to keep healthy, or playing sport because you enjoy improving your own personal best performances (extrinsic or intrinsic???). TASK: Write down the sports you are involved in. Next to each write why you think you took up that sport and why you still play.

Key Words:
Intrinsic - Want to win
Extrinsic - Rewards Goal setting is a very powerful technique that can lead to rewards and increase your motivation levels. Goal Setting By setting goals you can:
Take up a new activity
Achieve more
Improve performance
Improve training
Increase motivation
Increase your pride and satisfaction SMART Targets TASK: There has been a sharp decline in the number of people joining gyms over the past five years. 54,000 fewer people took out gym memberships in 2010 than 2008. Read the above information.

Summarise why you think that gym membership is dropping and why gyms have not been very successful in getting people fit. Components of Fitness Physical and Mental Capacity If we follow a healthy and balanced lifestyle then our overall health and fitness will benefit. You need to be able to:
Identify the health related components of fitness
Describe them
Explain how an active and healthly lifestyle affects each component
Explain the importance of the warm up and cool down with practical examples. Cardiovascular system involves transporting oxygen around the body.
It includes:
The Heart
Network of Blood Vessels
Blood Cardiovascular Endurance The heart is the muscular pump that delivers nutrients and oxygen to the body tissues
Networks of blood vessels permeate all living tissue.
The blood contained within the vessels is the transport medium for nutrients and oxygen.
Red blood cells transport oxygen to the active skeletal muscles.
Haemoglobin help carry the oxygen around the body. The ability of the muscle or group of muscles to repeatedly contract or keep going without rest. Muscular Endurance Muscles can keep going longer because of greater AEROBIC potential.
Activities like swimming or running can enlarge SLOW-TWITCH fibres.
Muscles are healthier, and due to exercise the size and number of MITOCHONDRIA are increased. Aerobic Aerobic capacity is defined as the maximum amount of oxygen the body can use during a specified period, usually during intense exercise. Mitochondria Is located in each muscle cell where the energy is produced. Athletes who participate in endurance events tend to have more mitochondria. Is the ability of the body to move quickly. Can either be WHOLE BODY or PARTS OF THE BODY. Speed With a healthy active lifestyle your speed is affected because:
Heart and Lungs more efficient
Muscles move quicker due to more energy available
Energy is available because you are more efficient at producing it
Joints are healthier and move freely Top 10 Speeds in Sport 9. Hammer Throw - 65mph 10. Javelin - 70mph 8. Table Tennis - 94mph 7. Baseball - 105mph World Record Pitch (Nolan Ryan) 6. Ice Hockey - 105.4mph Zdeno Chara 5. Football - 114mph David Hirst 4. Tennis - 155mph
Andy Roddick 3. Squash - 172mph
John White 2. Golf - 200mph 1. Badminton - 206mph
Fu Haifeng But what are the quickest speeds in sport? The ability of the muscular system to exert a force over a short period of time.
The amount of force (strength) depends on the size, number and co-ordination of the muscles involved. Strength With a healthy lifestyle strength is improved because:

Enlarge SLOW TWITCH FIBRES which gives greater potential for energy production
MITOCHONDRIA numbers are increased
Sprinting causes muscles to get bigger and stronger this is called HYPERTROPHY. Is the amount of range and movement that you can have around a joint.

The structure of the joint restricts movement aswell as the muscles, tendons and ligaments.

It is important to have flexibility to prevent strains and move faster and effectively. Flexibility Healthy lifestyle increases flexibility:
ligaments and supporting tissues can stretch further
blood flow to muscles improved
muscle temperature can help muscles the be more flexible. TASK:

Think of the sports you take part in, what fitness components are most important?

Think about the different positions you might play and justify your answers! Warm Up and Cool Down Warm Up Cool Down Warm up is crucial to any exercise or training programme. TASK: Write down 3 reason why we should warm up? Enables body to prepare for exercise
Reduces the chance of injury and muscle soreness
Releases adrenaline that will start the delivery of oxygen to the muscles
Increase in muscle temperature
Improves speed and strength of muscle contractions Is just as important as the warm up. Enables body to recover from exercise
Reduces the chance of injury and muscle soreness
Improves recovery time Healthy Balanced Lifestyle We need to be fit and healthy for many reasons:
Work for a living or go to school/university
Look after members of our family and friends
Physically move from one place to another
Play sports and engage in leisure activities
Make friends and socialise
Avoid illness and injury
Feel good in ourselves
Have a good sense of self esteem and self worth. Thinking about every day life, why do we need to be fit and healthy? PREP Choose 3 of the 5 Fitness Components.
You need to research and find out how to test for each of these.
How do you record results? ***IN FOR NEXT MONDAY 19/11/2012*** Benefits of a Healthy and Active Lifestyle Health Benefits Psychological Benefits Recap 5 Fitness Components.....
5- What is MITOCHONDRIA? 3 Reasons why we should Warm Up....
3- What is HYPERTROPHY? Prep from last week..... SPEED STRENGTH MUSCULAR ENDURANCE FLEXIBILITY CARDIOVASCULAR ENDURANCE Functions of the Skeleton The human skeleton has 5 major functions....
1 -
2 -
3 -
4 -
5 - Joints There are many different types of joints in the human body. Some with little or no movement. THREE MAIN TYPES:

Fibrous or Fixed
Do not allow any movement.
A tough, fibrous tissues between the ends of the bones.
Cartilaginous or Slightly Moveable
Allow some movement.
Ends of the bones have tough, fibrous cartilage, which allows for shock absorption.
Gives stability.
Synovial or Freely Moveable
Most common joint, allows a wide range of movement.
Consists of a joint capsule lined with a synovial membrane.
Lubrication is provided for the joint in form of synovial fluid. Synovial Joints Can be subdivided into further categories: HINGE JOINT:
Allows movement in ONE PLANE.
E.G. Knee Joint - Sprinting PIVOT JOINT:
Allows rotation only.
E.G. Vertebrae - Turning head looking for a pass. ELLIPSOID JOINT:
Allows movement on TWO PLANES.
E.G. Wrist - Forehand clear in Badminton GLIDING JOINT:
Two flat surfaces glide over one another.
E.G. Wrist - Dribbling in Hockey SADDLE JOINT:
When a CONCAVE surface, meets a CONVEX surface.
E.G. Thumb - Gripping a tennis racket. Synovial Joints BALL and SOCKET JOINT:
Allows a wide range of movement.
When a round head of bone fits into a cup shaped depression.
E.G. Shoulder - Throwing a javelin. **Describe the Hinge Joint and Ball and Socket joint, identify an example......** Cartilage A soft connective tissue. New born babies have a skeleton consisting of cartilage, as they get older it is replaced by bone (ossification).

Three types of Cartilage:

HYALINE OR BLUE ARTICULAR CARTILAGE - Found on bone surfaces, protective function for movement between bones. Hyaline thickens due to exercise.
WHITE FIBRO-CARTILAGE - Tough tissue acts as a shock absorber. Found in body where greater amount of stress is exerted. E.G. Knee Joint Ligaments Bands of connective tissue between bones. Very tough and resilient and help join bones together. Ligaments prevent extreme movements and help stop dislocation. Ranges of Movement FLEXION Refers to a decrease in the angle around a joint.
E.G Bend your arm at the elbow, and touch your shoulder with your hand. EXTENSION When the angle of the bones that are moving is increased. E.G. Standing up from a squat position. **Identify 2 Practical examples of Flexion and Extension in sport.** Ranges of Movement Abdution Movement of the body away from the middle or midline of the body.
E.G. A gymnast with their leg lifted to the side of their body. Adduction Opposite to Abduction, movement towards the middle or midline of the body.
E.G. Recovery of legs during the breaststroke. Rotation When the bone turns about its longitudinal axis within the joint.
Rotation towards the body = MEDIAL ROTATION
Rotation away from the body = LATERAL ROTATION Hinge Joint - Knee Joint What are the ranges of movement at the Knee?
2- Lable your Knee Joint diagram: Ball and Socket Joint - Hip Joint What are the ranges of movements at the Hip Joint?
5- Label your Hip Joint diagram: Problems Associated with Joints There are various problems associated with joints, however, most of them can be avoided through an active, healthy lifestyle. Effects on the Skeletal System Exercise has SHORT TERM and LONG TERM effects on the skeleton. SHORT TERM -
Movement stimulates the secretion of synovial fluid.
Synovial fluid becomes more viscous, which enables a wider range of movement. LONG TERM -
Connective tissue around the skeleton becomes more flexible.
Bones increase in density and thus making them stronger and help the onset of bone disease (osteoporosis)
Hyaline Cartilage thickens, preventing damage to the bone. Tendons thicken, ligaments have greater stretching potential.
Bone mineral content of calcium and phosphate is shown to be higher in people who regularly exercise. Arthritis Means, inflammation of the joints. Two of the most common forms are: Osteoarthritis Usually the result of aging and general wear and tear. Can be the result of injury during exercise or being overweight. Rheumatoid Arthritis When a person's immune system attacks cells within the joint. It can destroy CARTILAGE, LIGAMENTS and BONE. More likely to happen in females. Genetic links that may predispose you towards the disease. If you smoke or are obese increases the chances of getting RA. General reduction to the stress on joints can be achieved by:
Keep an ideal weight - eat a balanced, healthy diet.
Spacing out physical tasks - not all at the same time.
Wearing shoes that have plenty of cushioning, especially when exercising. Osteoporosis Disease in which bones become fragile and can break easily. Occurs when the body fails to form enough new bone, or too much old bone is reabsorbed, or both. Two crucial minerals for normal bone formation are CALCIUM and PHOSPHATE. Leading cause of Osteoporosis is a lack of certain hormones, particularly oestrogen in women. Women aged 60+ are frequently diagnosed with the disease. Other factors that can lead to the disease are inadequate intake of calcium or vitamin D, lack of weight bearing exercise. If not prevented can lead to bone breaks. These happen more commonly in the hip, spine and wrist.
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