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History of Wheat

Information about wheat. Exciting.
by

Bree Smith

on 10 April 2014

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Transcript of History of Wheat

History of Wheat
Where It's Grown
The Prairie States of America
Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan in Canada
In Heilongjiang, China
Northern India
Around Moscow in Russia
Country of Origin
It is unknown where wheat originated
from before the time of Christ
The oldest known cultivated oats were found in caves in Switzerland, and are believed to be from the Bronze Age
Some people believe that wheat originated in southwestern Asia
Growing Wheat
First step is checking the mineral content of the soil
Breaking the topsoil is also important so it is easier to plant
Spread the seeds on to the ground
If planting in summer, they should be watered twice a day. It's not necessary to water in winter
Once the wheat stems, it's time to harvest
One can use a scythe for a small crop, or a combine harvester for larger crop.
Varieties
There are six different types of wheat classes
Hard Red Winter
Mostly produced in America
Used for breads and rolls
Bought largly in Russia, China, Japan, Poland and Morocco
Hard Red Spring
Contains a high percentage of protein
Used in breads
exported mostly to central America, Japan, Russia and the Philippines
High yeilding, but low protein
Used for crackers, flat breads, cakes, and pastries
Exported mostly to China, Egypt, and Morocco
Soft Red Winter
Durum
Used to make semolina oil
Exported mostly to Algeria
Hard White Wheat
Used Mainly in yeast bread, hard rolls, bulgur, tortillas, and Oriental noodles
Used primarly in domestic markets
Soft White Wheat
Used for bakery products, besides bread
Low protein, but high yielding
exported mainly to Far East Asia
Wheat Nutrients
Different wheats have different nutrients
Whole wheat has various nutrients
Manganese
Fiber
Copper
Magnesium
Pantothenic Acid
helps the body form connective tissue, bones, blood clotting factors, and sex hormones
plays a role in fat and carbohydrate metabolism, calcium absorption, and blood sugar regulation
necessary for normal brain and nerve function
soluble fiber pulls in water to form a gel in the digestive tract so your stomach and intestine doesn’t absorb as much of some nutrients. so cholesterol levels go down over time
may improve glucose tolerance in people with diabetes
acts as a natural laxative that speeds the passage of foods through the stomach
gives stool its bulk and helps it move quickly through the gastrointestinal tract
helps your body make red blood cells
keeps nerve cells and your immune system healthy
helps form collagen
may also act as an antioxidant
helps the body absorb iron
your body needs copper to make energy
every organ in the body needs magnesium
it contributes to the makeup of teeth and bones
it activates enzymes
contributes to energy production
helps regulate calcium levels
helps the body convert food into fuel
helps the body use fats and protein
needed for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver
helps the nervous system function properly
Uses of Wheat
Wheat has been used for animal feed
Wheat is often used in human food
Before the introduction of corn into Europe, wheat was the principal source of starch for sizing paper and cloth
It is used commonly in adhesives
How Wheat is Processed
white flour is often enriched with vitamins and iron removed with the wheat germ.
millers bleach the flour
it's enriched with supplements such as B vitamins and iron
wheat farmers reap the wheat's kernels after they have fully developed and mostly dried out
farmers know it is ready when the kernels of wheat have a rich golden brown color
wheat is still reaped with hand-held instruments, such as scythes or sickles, in many countries
in industrialized countries, the wheat is usually harvested by combine harvesters, which cut the heads of the wheat off the stalks. The machine then threshes the wheat, beating it to remove the chaff.
the wheat farmers then ship the wheat to millers
Reaping
Cleaning and Tempering
millers clean the wheat kernels with mechanical cleaners using a series of disks and streams of water to remove any dust, stones, straw and weeds that might have come in with the kernels.
a final water bath separates any heavy items from the wheat
the moistened wheat kernels will also toughen the bran coat
the toughened bran coat will separate from the wheat's endosperm.
the water will also soften the endosperm, which will become flour.
Grinding
windmills used giant stone grinders to mill wheat
millers crack and grind the wheat with their mill's grinding stones or steel rollers
the rollers flatten the wheat germ as the wheat is rolled through, which helps the sifters catch the germ
some millers blow the germ away with streams of air right after the wheat is cracked and the germ is separated away
the germ is blown away when millers make white flour
for whole wheat flour, the bran is ground down with the endosperm and is ground continuously, making it finer and finer.
finally, the flour is passed through sifters
Enriching
Wheat Trade History
The grain trade goes back at least to the Neolithic Revolution
In ancient times, wheat was traded in the Ancient Near East
In the 1920s and 30s farmers in Australia and Canada reacted against the pricing power of the large grain-handling and shipping companies by created the Australian Wheat Board and Canadian Wheat Board as monopsony marketing boards, buying all the wheat in those countries for export
Together those two boards controlled a large percentage of the world's grain trade in the mid 20th century
Videos
Early trade was most likely be means of bartering
It was harder to travel, so trade was limited
The invention of the wheel helped trade immensely
Full transcript