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Nuclear Physics

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Elizabeth Pendergrass

on 10 January 2013

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Transcript of Nuclear Physics

Marie Sklodowska Curie Harriet Brooks Magda Galula Ericson Ellen Gleditsch Gertrude Scharff Goldhaber Noemie Benczer Koller Maria Goeppert Mayer Lise Meitner Melba Newell Phillips Katharine Way Conceived the word radioactive Nobel Prize (physics) with Pierre Curie in 1903 for "joint research on the radiation phenomenon discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel Ernest Rutherford credited her identification of Radon, as a vital piece of work that led him to propose the theory of the transmutation of one element into another Working alongside Rutherford, Harriet determined the rate of diffusion of the radium emanation into the air and other gases Magda's contributions to physics have been fundamental to the development of nuclear pion physics as a subfield of nuclear physics One of her contributions is the innovative interpretation of the EMC effect due to the nuclear quark condensate as due to the nuclear pion cloud Using careful measurements of half-life radioactivity Ellen confirmed Rutherford's downward revision of the radium standard, an important calibration standard of radioactivity Gleditsch conducted many meticulous studies of radioactivity Goldhaber discovered that neutrons are emitted in spontaneous fission Some of her developments in the studies of nuclear structure include pseudomagic nuclei, long lived isomers, and the variable moment of inertia model One example of Noemie's pioneering in condensed matter and nuclear physics is that she made the first identification of the double gamma decay of 40Ca* to the ground state Used the Mossbauer effect in various investigations of magnetic materials Maria was the first person to investigate the phenomenon of double quantum emission and after a few years, double beta decay In 1963 Maria Goeppert Mayer won the Nobel Prize along with J. Hans D. Jensen "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure" Along with O. Hahn and F. Strassmann, Lise discovered the process of nuclear disintegration called nuclear fission In 1923, Meitner discovered , the radiationless transition known as the Auger effect after describing the process known as internal conversion Came up with the theory of the Oppenheimer-Phillips process, a form of deuteron-induced nuclear reaction Phillips co-authored two widely used textbooks for undergraduate and graduate physics teaching and had a big impact on the teaching of elementary and high school science Katharine Way is often identified by her work on critically evaluated nuclear data from the late 1940s to 1982 Katharine constructed an empirical Way-Wigner formula for beta decay rates of fission products based on estimated beta-decay energies Maria was the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in theoretical physics and the second of only two women to win a Nobel Prize in physics up to 1963
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