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Kaizer Bienes

on 18 April 2013

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Transcript of KASPIL2

PEOPLING OF THE PHILIPPINES 5000 BCE Austronesians - From Latin auster (“south wind”) and Greek nesos (“island”)
- Family of languages spoken from Easter Island
on the east to Madagascar on the west 4000 BCE 3000 BCE 2000 BCE 1000 BCE 0 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 - Settlement in Taiwan of Pre-Austronesian-speaking peoples from mainland China due to developments in agriculture similarities in pottery assemblages of the local Tapenkeng culture (TPK) with Fujian and Guangdong. ca. 4500 BC - 4000 BCE Austronesians - Differentiation into three or four regional complexes. ca. 3000 BCE Austronesians - Southward movement of people from Taiwan into the Philippines and Indonesia ca. 2500 - 1500 BCE Austronesians - Austronesian dispersal to Mainland Southern Asia by 500 BC, Madagascar by the 1st millenium AD, and the Eastern Islands by 13th century AD. ca. 1500 BCE NMTCN Timeline - divided into four lobes Central Lobe Early Central Lobe - Eastern Coastal Vietnam (5000 BCE) Late Central Lobe - Southeastern Taiwan and South China from south Fujian and westward Northern Lobe - From Taiwan and Fujian to coastal China, coastal Korea, and eastern Japan (including west coast and northern end of Honshu) Eastern Lobe Western Lobe - From Malaysia and western Indonesia, along coastal India and Sri Langka up to the western coast of Africa and Madagascar Early Eastern Lobe Late Eastern Lobe - Moluccas and the Bismarck archipelago - Moluccas eastward to Wallacea, throughout
the pacific as far as Easter Island Filipino Racial Classification J. Montano (1885) of France Negritos - Negritos of Bataan
- Ata (Aeta/Ita) of Luzon
- Mamanwa of Mindoro Malays - Chinese, Indonesian and Arabic blood)- Bicol, Visayas, Southern Luzon Indonesians - Samal: found in Sulu, Zamboanga, and Davao del Sur
- Bagobo: Davao gulf area- Tagbanua: Palawan
- Manobo: found in Mindanao (Cotabato, Agusan, Sarangani)
- Mandaya: Eastern Mindanao- Bilaan: Southern Mindanao Inland Push Theory Negritos as an indigenous group - Rudolf Virchow (German, 1821-1902)
- Ferdinand Blumentritt (Austrian, 1853-1913)
- Adolf Bernard Meyer (German, 1840-1911)
- David Prescott Barrows (American, 1873-1954)
- Dean C. Worcester (American, 1866-1924)
- Paul Schabesta (Polish, 1887-1967) Questionable Theory - No archaeological evidence
- Genetic evidence inconclusive
- Ethnographic evidence: Negritos are mobile Prehistory: Where did we come from? R.B. Bean: Six racial groups Racial Groups - Primitive, Australoid, Iberian: Negritos, Kalinga and inhabitants of Cainta and Paranaque
- Alphine, B.B.B., Cro-Magnon: migrants from Europe, the Middle East and Southeast Asia Philippine residents - Northern Luzon and Central Mindanao: intermarriage between European migrants and indigenous people
- Migrants from Europe via India and the Malay Peninsula
- Migrants from Middle East and Africa: Muslims Land
 H. Otley Beyer: Waves of Migration Theory Each group physically different from one another - Primitive (Pleistocene period)
- Australoid-Sakai (25,000-30,000 years ago)
- Indonesian “A” (5,000-6,000 years ago)
- Indonesian “B” (1,500 BCE): from Indo-China
- Central Asia (800-500 BCE)
- Malays (300-200 BCE): via Borneo, Palawan and Mindoro
- Modern Asians Pleistocene -derived from Greek pleistos ("most") and kainos ("new")
-the era from about 2.5 million to 12,000 years Before Present (BP)
-a period of repeated glaciations (think “Ice Age”) Sunda Shelf -encompasses the areas of the Asian continental shelf
-includes the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Java and Sumatra (in present-day Indonesia) Sahul Shelf -stretches from Australia to Timor Sunda vs Sahul Wallace Line -named after Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913)
-dividing line between Sunda and Sahul shelves
-runs through Indonesia between Borneo and Celebes (Sulawesi); through the Lombok Strait between the islands of Bali and Lombok
-biological (flora ad fauna) contrasts Lydekker Line -Richard Lydekker (1849-1915) Weber Line -Max Carl Wilhelm Weber or Max Wilhelm Carl Weber (1852-1937) Pleistocene and the Philippines Links to Sunda land -via Balabac, Palawan and Calamianes
-via Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago Late Pleistocene and the Philippines Mindanao -divided into five (5) major islands: Surigao, Agusan, Lanao, Cotabato, and Zamboanga
-Palawan: connected with Borneo Visayas -Samar and Leyte: series of small islands
-Bohol: shallow waters
-Cebu: coralline-topped islets
-Panay, Negros, Ticao, Tablas: connected Luzon -Bondoc Peninsula separated from Camarines
-Albay and Sorsogon: under water
-Zambales: joined Luzon
-Abra: attached to Ilocos Norte
-Baguio: connected to the Sierra Madre region
-Cagayan Valley: filled with sediment
-Batanes: disconnected from Luzon Foreign Sources -the bending of rocks in the Earth as a result of compressional tectonic forces such as continental collisions Faulting -fracturing of rocks in the Earth causing breakage and slip parallel to the fracture Folding 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 Chinese Sources Author: Chao Ju-Kua (Zhao Rugua/Zhao Rukuo) Author: Wang Ta-yuang (Wang Dayuan) Author: Chu-Ssu-Pen (1273-1337) Author: Albert Hermann 1750 -Document: Chu Fan Chin (Zhu Fan Zhi)
-Year: 1225 AD
-Philippines: Mai or Mait, north of P’o-ni (Borneo) -Document: Tao-i-Chi-Lioh (Summary notices of the barbarians of the isles)
-Year: 1349 AD
-Philippines: Ma-i
-Sulu, Mintolang, Malilu -Document: Yu Thu (Atlas)
-Year: 14th century
-Philippines: Ma-i -Document: Historical Atlas of China
-Year: 1144 AD
-Philippines: Ma-i
-Pai-P’u-yen (Babuyan Island), P’u-li-lu (Polillo island), Liu-Hsin (Luzon), Li-han, Pa-chi-lung, Chia-ma-yen (Calamianes), Li-chin-tung (Catanduanes), Pa-lao-yu (Palawan) Ancient Trade -Lois Sherr Dubin: No direct trade between the Philippines and India
-Kenneth Hall: Southeast Asian ship pilots opened sea route from India to China (as alternative to the caravan route) in the 2nd/3rd century AD
-O.W. Wolters: ancient Filipinos trade with Funan (modern day Vietnam and Cambodia), 3rd century AD
-Chinese records: Philippine traders brought goods to China, 982 AD
-Institute of Southeast Asian History: Philippines trade with China during the T’ang Dynasty (7th-9th century AD) China, via Southeast Asia Tribute Missions to China -Chinese Sung Dynasty (960-1278 AD): tribute missions from Ma-i, Borneo and Butuan
-1206 AD: cotton from Po-ssu-lan (Basilan), Ma-i, and San-hsu
-13th century AD: Sulu and Butuan tribute missions
-1373 AD: first tribute mission from Luzon -Butuan
-1001 AD, King Kiling
-1003, gifts: red parrots, tortoise shell
-1007: request for equal status with Champa
-1011, Sri Bata Shaja, gifts: gold memorial, “White Dragon” camphor, cloves, -and a slave Philippine products -Philippine products: beeswax, cotton, true pearls, tortoise shell, medicinal betel nuts, yuta cloth, abaca
-Merchant products: porcelain, trade gold, iron pots, lead, colored glass beads, and iron needles Ming Dynasty Tribute Missions -1373 AD, Luzon
-1405 AD, Luzon and Mao-li-wu (Marinduque or Mindoro)
-1406 AD, Feng-chia-his-lan (Pangasinan)
-1417 AD, Sulu (Paduka Batara, Maharaja Kolamating, Paduka Prabhu)
-Chinaware, court costumes, ceremonial insignia, caparisoned horses, patterned silk, copper coins, gold and silver 1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 The Discovery of the Philippines Spanish' Return to the Philippines Re-establishment of the Spanish Colonization Seven Years War 1756-1763 Propagandas The Philippine
Revolution SPANISH COLONIALISM Seven Years War 1756-1783 - affected Europe, North America, Central America, West Africa, India, and the Philippines The Philippines September 22, 1762 - British fleet at Manila Bay - Admiral
Samuel Cornish and Brigadier
General William Draper - 500 Spaniards and 300 UST
students; total 1,000 soldiers and
5,000 Filipinos Patronato Real - Deal between the Pope and King of Spain: —tithes waived but finance missionaries and build churches, and imperial control over Church in the colonies September 28, 1762 December 16, 1501 - reinforcements of 1,000 Tagalogs and
4,000 Pampangos King Charles I of Spain approved Magellan expedition to the Moluccas
Benefits for Magellan:
Magellan given the title “Adelantado” or governor
1/20 of the profits
Right to trade up to 1,000 ducats ( a gold coin usually 3.4909 grams of 0.986 gold, which is 0.1107 troy ounce), pay 1/20 royal duties
Choose an island after King has six; entitled to 15% of benefits after expenses
5 percent of assets found in trip; King pays for the expenses of the trip
King: natives to be treated with utmost good faith and great affection March 21, 1519 October 5, 1762 - British occupy Manila; looting February 10, 1763 - Peace Treaty between Spain
and Britain March 30, 1764 - British troops evacuate March 31, 1764 - Spanish troops enter Manila The Philippines Rajah Colambu took Magellan to Cebu; April 3, 1521 Humabon gave food and gifts; Humabon’s emissaries discussed treaty with Spaniards; Magellan discussed Christianity April 9, 1521 Spaniards opened a trading store in Cebu; natives admired Spanish novelty items; Spaniards preferred livestock in exchange for their goods April 12, 1521 - viewed as a continuation of the War of
the Austrian Succession Humabon converts to Christianity, tells Magellan of refusal of other chieftains to recognize him (Humabon) as superior; Magellan promises to make Humabon mightiest ruler as reward for conversion April 14, 1521 September 24, 1559 - King Philip II instructs
Viceroy of Mexico to
organize an expedition
to the Philippines King Philip II Magellan attacked Mactan. Magellan and 48 Spaniards vs more numerous natives under Lapu-Lapu
Magellan hit by an arrow, ordered his men to retreat
Magellan later hit by a spear in the forehead, struck in the left leg and eventually killed by a mob of native soldiers April 27, 1521 November 21, 1564 - Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, head of the
exploration; left Navidad, Mexico Miguel Lopez de Legazpi 1502-1572 “official” teachers in every village school Royal Cedula of August 4, 1765 prohibited teaching of catechism in the native languages; to be taught in Spanish Royal Cedula of February 26, 1766 February 1768 Royal decree forcing Filipinos to plant wheat, corn, vegetables, fruit-trees; own 12 hens, one rooster and one pig; plant 200 coconut trees and 200 abaca plants January 26, 1565 secularization of parishes in Cavite Viejo (Kawit), Las Pinas and Santa Rosa
Construction of streets and bridges in Manila
Public light system
Improvement in fortifications in Cavite under Governor Rafael Maria de Aguilar Royal Cedula of March 31, 1803 - Legaspi takes Guam for Spain February 20, 1565 - Legaspi takes Samar for Spain March 8, 1565 - Felipe Salcedo (Legaspi’s grandson) takes
Leyte for Spain March 14, 1565 - Salcedo takes Camiguin for Spai May 24, 1570 - Martin de Goiti led 120 Spaniards and 600 natives in exploring Manila
- Maomat, native of Luzon acted as guide; Manooc (of Dapitan) and his men joined
- Skirmish in Batangas; Goiti injured
- Battle ensued in Manila June 24, 1571 - City of Manila was founded by the Spaniards relieved acting governor Folgueras
3 million Filipinos; 15 Spaniards for every 25,000 Filipinos; 300 friars vs 1,000+ Filipino clerics
Filipinos who voluntarily accepted Spanish rule was exempted from paying tribute; Filipino landowners exempted from paying tithes February 18, 1809 1884 - rumors of a Philippine Revolutionary
Junta in the United States with branches
in London, Paris, Madrid and Hong
Kong; Ysidoro de la Rama of Iloilo as
one of the leading agents compulsory teaching of Spanish in primary schools March 18, 1815 Spanish ports opened to Philippine trade March 7, 1820 October 1, 1839 Professional School teaching accounting, business correspondence, mathematics, French, English March 1, 1888 - Filipinos demand expulsion of Archbishop and
the friars; Marcelo H. del Pilar suspected to be
behind the rally - Valeriano Hayler Prohibited the use of any
language or dialect other than Spanish in schools Spanish residents of the Philippines
506 friars, government officials and army officers;
Civilians: 85 in Ilocos Sur; 44 in Batangas; 34 in Albay; 25 each in Zambales and Bataan; 22 in Nueva Ecija; one or two Spaniards in Camarines Sur, Camarines Norte, Abra, Mindoro, and Cagayan 1848 Marcelo H.Del Pilar 1850-1896 Filipinos adopted surnames 1849 Volume of imports and exports at 50 million pesos 1882 1883 Under Joaquin Jovellar y Soler, compulsory service from 40 days to 15 days a year February 15, 1889 - La Solidaridad came off the press; Graciano
Lopez Jaena as editor; Pablo Rianzares as
financier July 31, 1889 - Spanish Civil Code made applicable to
the Philippines December 1889 Marcelo del Pilar becomes editor of La Solidaridad
Rizal refuses to be nominee for representative
to Cortes; recommends del Pilar instead July 3, 1892 - Liga Filipina established;
• Ambrosio Salvador as president
• Agustin de la Rosa as Fiscal
• Bonifacio Arevalo as Treasurer
• Deodato Arellano as Secretary La Liga Filipina July 5, 1892 - Rizal is ordered arrested July 6, 1892 Patino tells his sister Honoria; Honoria tells Madre Portera
Patino convinced to confess to Fr. Mariano Gil, parish priest of Tondo
Planned massacre of Spanish residents in Manila
18,000 Katipunan members according to Patino 1890s - Rizal meets Governor Despujol;
Rizal escorted to Fort Santiago —- Katipunan was established by Deodato Arellano, Andres Bonifacio, Valentin Diaz, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, Jose Dizon July 7, 1892 Balintawak meeting by Katipuneros: no result
Launch rebellion, attack Manila on August 29; cedulas torn
Report: Katipunan members: 2,000 in Pasig and Mandaluyong; 500 in San Juan; 500 in Pandacan and Sampaloc; 200 in Malabon; 700 in Caloocan; and 200 in the outskirts of Manila; 1,000 in the regular army secretly affiliated to the Katipunan; total 20,000 members distributed throughout Manila, Pampanga, Cavite, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, and Laguna, Independent Katipunan unit in Batangas. Cavite had 15,000 weapons. Dr. Valenzuela had 30,000 pesos in gold. August 22-23, 1896 July 15, 1892 - Rizal is exiled to Dapitan First Flag of the Katipunan Skirmish near Tandang Sora’s house August 25, 1896 Bonifacio Proclamation (August 28) September 1892 - Rizal’s brother and friends are given executive clemency Assault on Manila: those who oppose will be considered traitors and an enemy 1894 - plans to rescue Rizal in Dapitan August 30, 1896 Martial Law declared in Manila, Cavite, Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac, Laguna, Batangas, Nueva Ecija
2,000 Filipinos apply for amnesty November 1895 - La Solidaridad folds up Emilio Aguinaldo captured Kawit. 1,140 guns and thousands of boloes distributed to revolutionists. Revolution joined by most of the Filipino members of the Guardia Civil and able-bodied men of Imus, Noveleta, Cavite, San Francisco, Silang, Rosario, Naic, Dasmarifias, and Alfonso. Total around 6,000 men. August 31, 1896 Pio Valenzuela surrenders, discloses Katipunan plans, documents, etc.
Aguedo del Rosario also surrenders
Antonio Luna discloses information about rebels in Meycauayan, Malabon, Navotas, Obando and Marilao
Reinforcements from Spain
3,500 soldiers and 200 officers September 1, 1896 January 18, 1896 13 martyrs of Cavite were executed; rebellion concentrated in Nueva Ecija and Cavite September 12, 1896 - Kalayaan is published
- Katipunan to purchase arms and ammunitions
in Japan June 15, 1896 - Pio Valenzuela confers with Rizal
- Rizal leaves Dapitan to be doctor in Cuban revolution Death of Rizal by Firing Squad December 30, 1896 Cavite conquered; stalemate in Laguna and Batangas; emphasis now on Bulacan, Nueva Ecija and Pampanga July 1897 Aguinaldo orders arrest of Bonifacio April 1897 Bonifacio found guilty of treason; Aguinaldo orders commutation of the death sentence to exile May 6, 1897 Aguinaldo to accept Pact of Biyak na Bato
Aguinaldo and other Filipino leaders lay down their arms
Leaders go on exile; Aguinaldo to receive 400,000 pesos letter of credit upon embarking
Letter of credit to be encashed after turning over to Spaniards 225 firearms, 2,382 ammunition, 20 cannons, 2 officer’s swords
Distribution of safe conducts December 16, 1897 Aguinaldo boards the Uranus for Hong Kong
Certain leaders complained of being left out of the 400,000 pesos given by the Spaniards December 27, 1897 1905 1910 1915 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 The downfall of Spain February 8, 1898 - The Katipunan is revived by Emilio Jacinto (Dec 15, 1875 - Apr 16, 1899) and Feliciano Jocson. April 24, 1898 - The US government asks Aguinaldo for cooperation in its anti-
Spanish politics, and offers in exchange the promise of US
support for the Filipinos in their struggle for independence.
Aguinaldo agrees. April 26, 1898 - The US declares war on Spain. May 24, 1898 - Aguinaldo proclaims a dictatorial government and issues
two decrees which show his trust and reliance in US
protection. June 21, 1898 - The Philippines is proclaimed independent from Spain in Kawit,
- The proclamation places the US in the special position of
protector of Philippine independence. June 23, 1898 - Apolinario Mabini advised that the Philippine dictatorial government is
changed to a revolutionary government, and in Malolos, Bulacan the
Malolos Republic is institutionalized July 15, 1898 Aguinaldo creates the Malolos Congress with 136
members. 60 of them are appointed by Aguinaldo
while the rest are chosen by representatives of the
provinces. July 17, 1898 - US reinforcements and troops arrive in the Philippines. They number 740 officers and
10,964 men and are commanded by General Wesley E. Meritt (died 1910). August 14, 1898 - The Spanish in Manila surrender to the US after a pre-arranged mock
battle. A US military government is established by General Meritt. December 10, 1898 - In the Treaty of Paris between the US and Spain, the latter sells the Philippines to the US for 20 million dollars. October 16, 1916 Manuel Quezon (1878-1944) - elected President of the Senate Sergio Osmena (1878-1961) - elected Speaker of the House of Representatives November 30, 1930 - The Communist Party of the Philippines is formally established under the leadership of Crisanto Evangelista and Jacinto Manahan. October 26, 1932 - The Communist Party of the Philippines is declared illegalby the Supreme Court. March 24, 1934 - The Tydings-McDuffie Law, known as the Philippine Independence Law, is approved by US President Roosevelt. It provides for a ten year transition period of the Commonwealth of the Philippines under a constitution to be drafted by a Constitutional Convention, the members of which are to be elected by the people. Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) July 10, 1934 - Election by the Filipino people of the
202 delegates to the Constitutional Convention is held in fulfillment of the Tydings-McDuffie Law. July 30, 1934 - The Philippine Constitutional Convention is inaugurated. The officers are: Claro M. Recto (Feb 8, 1890 - Oct 2, 1960), President; Ruperto Manansala and Teodorico Sandico, Vice Presidents; Narciso Pimentel, Secretary; and Jose Diokno, Sergeant-at-arms. February 15, 1935 - The Philippine Constitution is signed. AMERICAN COLONIALISM First Commonwealth September 17, 1935 - The Philippines holds its first presidential election;
Manuel Quezon is elected President,
Sergio Osmena Vice-President

- The other presidential and vice-presidential candidates were Emilio Aguinaldo and Raymundo Milleza; Gregorio Aglipay and Norberto Nabong; and Pascual Racuyal. November 15, 1935 - The Philippine Commonwealth is inaugurated with Manuel Quezon as the first President and Sergio Osmena as the first Vice-President. At this juncture, the office of the US Governor-General isabolished. 1935 - Strikes and protests, which reject the Constitution and favor the establishment of a Soviet form of government, accelerate until 1940. November 11, 1941 - The Philippines holds its 2nd presidential election under the Commonwealth government. Quezon and Osmena are re-elected. Other presidential candidates were: Juan Sumulong, Pedro Abad Santos and Hilario Moncado. WORLD WAR II 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 December 8, 1941 - Immediately after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Japanese fighter planes attack the Philippines as an ally of the US, shocking the unprepared US and Filipino troops. Douglas MacArthur, the Commander of the US Armed Forces in the Far East, decides to retreat to the Bataan peninsula. December 20, 1941 - President Quezon, his family and the war cabinet move to Corregidor Island. Corregidor Island Map US troops leave the capital. General MacArthur declares Manila an open city, virtually surrendering it to the Japanese. December 26, 1941 December 28, 1941 - Filipino and US armies retreat to Bataan. December 30, 1941 -President Quezon and Vice-President Osmena take their oath of office inside the Corregidor Tunnel Malinta Tunnel Corregidor January 2, 1942 - Japanese forces enter Manila January 3, 1942 - The Japanese Commander in Chief, General Masaharu Homma, proclaims the end to US occupation of the Philippines. Masaharu Homma (1887-1946) February 17, 1942 - The Japanese issue an order adopting the Japanese educational system in The Country, eradicating the one established before by the US and the Spanish. The new educational system deals with the propagation of Filipino culture, the teaching of Nipongo, diffusion of vocational and elementary education, and promotion of love for labor. Nipongo/Nihongo language February 20, 1942 - President Quezon and the war cabinet leave for the States. March 11, 1942 - General MacArthur leaves for Australia to take command of the South Western Pacific Area. General Douglas McArthur (1880-1964) March 13, 1942 - The Commonwealth government is moved to the US. "I shall return..." March 29, 1942 - The People's Anti-Japanese Army or Hukbong Bayan Laban sa Hapon (Hukbalahap) is organized. April 9, 1942 - Bataan, under US commander General Edward King, is the last province that surrenders to the Japanese armies - The infamous Death March follows, the painful trek of 36,000 US and Filipino soldiers and guerillas without food and water. - Prisoners of war are bayonetted or brutally beaten to death by their guards. Those who reach San Fernando, Pampanga, are taken to a concentration camp at Capaz, Tarlac. April 24 Cover of The Tribune April 9, 1942 May 6, 1942 - Corregidor surrenders to the Japanese and 12,000 Filipino and US soldiers are taken prisoners of war. June 14, 1942 - The Commonwealth of the Philippines becomes a member of the United Nations. September 15, 1943 - The members of the National Assembly elect Jose P. Laurel as the President of the Philippines. October 14, 1943 - The puppet government is inaugurated. Laurel takes his oath of office and asks the US to recognize the "independence" of the Philippines. November 1943 - The Philippine economy collapses, the shortage of rice becomes serious. May 1944 - The puppet government inaugurates the Green Revolution Movement. It requires everyone aged 16 to 60 to plant on all available land to counter the threat of starvation. 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 Manuel Roxas Death March Route Elpidio Quirino Bataan Prisoners Ramon Magsaysay Diosdado Macapagal August 1, 1944 - February 4, 1945Sergio Osmena suFebruary 4, 1945cceeds in the presidency because of Manuel Quezon's death at Saranak Lake due to tuberculosis Sergio Osmena (1878-1961) October 20, 1944 - General MacArthur lands in Palo, Leyte, accompanied by President Sergio Osmena and US troops. Carlos Garcia General Macarthur's return October 23, 1944 - The Commonwealth government of the Philippines is re-established in Tacloban, Leyte which is declared the temporary capital of the Philippines pending liberation of the whole country. Leyte Ferdinand Marcos February 4, 1945 - US troops enter Manila and the Japanese, in an orgy of blood, massacre thousands of Filipinos. February 24, 1945 - The Battle of Manila ends. The Japanese surrender to the US. July 5, 1945 - General MacArthur announces the liberation of the Philippines. August 6, 1945 The Americans drop an atomic bomb over Hiroshima, Japan August 9, 1945 The Americans drop an atomic bomb over Nagasaki, Japan. Atomic Bombs
Hiroshima(left) and Nagasaki (right) August 15, 1945 Japan accepts defeat July 4, 1946 The US declares the Independence of the Philippines. March 6, 1947 President Roxas declares the Hukbalahap illegal, as it is alleged to have been organized and maintained to commit sedition and to overthrow the government by force. In the following months, the Huks lay low and occupy themselves with the organization of urban workers and the activation of labor unions. Labor unions are integrated into the Congress of Labor organization, headed by Jose and Jesus Lava. April 15, 1947 President Roxas dies from a heart attack at Clark Air Field, Pampanga during a visit to the US military installation. He is succeeded by his Vice-President Elpidio Quirino. POST-WAR April 17, 1947 Quirino takes his oath of office as President of the Philippines. He promises the restoration of people's faith in the government by solving the most pressing problem, the rebellion in central Luzon, through negotiation with the rebels. August 15, 1947 The Huks change their name to Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan (Liberation Army Movement) and establish 6 regional commands, 4 more than originally. September 8, 1947 The Philippine representative to the Far Eastern Commission, Carlos P. Romulo, signs the Japanese Peace Treaty. The Philippines is to obtain large reparations from Japan. November 10, 1953 Ramon Magsaysay is elected President. Magsaysay garners 2,912,992 votes while Quirino obtains only 1,315,991. Magsaysay views as his responsibility to give personal attention and render on-the-spot solutions to people's everyday problems. He remains very receptive to any policy suggested to him by Landsdale. December 30, 1953 Magsaysay takes his oath of office. July 21, 1954 The Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty is signed in Manila, creating the South East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO). The organization aims to stop communist expansion in the area. Aside from the Philippines, the only other Southeast Asian member is Thailand. Other members are the United States, Great Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand and Pakistan. December 15, 1954 The Laurel-Langley Agreement is signed by the main negotiators, former President Jose P. Laurel and James L. Langley. This agreement opens the entire Philippine economy to US corporations. March 17, 1957 President Magsaysay dies in a plane crash in Cebu. Vice-President Carlos P. Garcia assumes the presidency. November 14, 1957 A presidential election is held with Carlos P. Garcia, of the Nacionalista Party, Jose Yulo of the Liberal Party, Manuel Manahan of the Progressive Party of the Philippines, and Claro M. Recto of the Lapiang Makabansa. Garcia wins the election by over 600,000 votes against his closest rival, Jose Yulo. November 7, 1961 Diosdado Macapagal is elected President with 651,626 votes over Garcia. Emmanuel Pelaez is elected Macapagal's Vice-President. November 9, 1965 In presidential elections, Ferdinand Marcos wins with 3,554,840 votes over Diosdado Macapagal with 3,187,752. Marcos' running mate, Fernando Lopez, is elected Vice-President. December 26, 1968 A new Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) is founded by Jose Maria Sison (born Feb 8, 1939) and other young intellectuals of the Kilusang Makabayan (Nationalist Youth), the youth organization of the old Communist Party. March 29, 1969 The New People's Army, the military arm of the Communist Party of the Philippines, is formally organized by Jose Maria Sison and Bernabe Buscayno alias Kumander Dante in Capas, Tarlac. 1970 In the first three months, youth activism is born in the so-called first quarter storm. Demonstrations, strikes and riots spring up over issues such as lack of opportunity for the poor, colonial economy, graft and corruption, imperialism, feudalism and capitalism. Violence erupts in two areas in Mindanao, Cotabato and Lanao del Norte provinces. Feliciano Luis, a Christian Ilongo settler in Mindanao organizes a band known as theIlagas (rats) to attack the Moros. The Moros, on the other hand, have theBlackshirts, the military arm of the Muslim Independence Movement. Both are heavily armed.
June 1, 1971 The Constitutional Convention assembles to rewrite the 1935 Constitution. The Convention elects former President Carlos Garcia as its head. June 14, 1971 Garcia dies and former President Diosdado Macapagal takes over the top position at the Convention. June 14, 1971 Garcia dies and former President Diosdado Macapagal takes over the top position at the Convention. August 21, 1971 At about 21:30, Plaza Miranda in Quiapo, Manila is bombed while the Liberal Party is holding a rally proclaiming its candidates for the mid-term senate elections. Ten people are killed and some 100 are injured including 8 senatorial candidates, among them Jovito Salonga. The identity of the perpetrators of the bombing remains unknown.
August 22, 1971 The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus is suspended by Marcos on the presumption that unlawful elements in The Country had banded together and entered into a conspiracy to commit insurrection and rebellion to overthrow the duly constituted government. 1972 Suspicious bombing incidents increase all over The Country . The MNLF launches its campaign for the independence of the Muslim provinces.
September 21, 1972 President Marcos signs the Martial Law Edict (at that time not publicly announced). September 22, 1972 At approximately 21:00, Marcos places the entire country under martial law (at that time without the public knowing about it).
September 23, 1972 At around 12:10, Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr. is arrested in his room at the Manila Hilton Hotel (now Pavilion). No formal charges are filed against him to justify the arrest. However, he is accused of involvement in subversive activities and imprisoned at Fort Bonifacio in solitary confinement and under strict security. Also arrested are Jovito Salonga, Eva Kalaw, Ramon Mitra, Chino Roces, Eugenio Lopez, Jr, John Osmena and others. September 23, 1972 The implementation of martial law is officially announcedat about 20:00. Marcos explains that martial law is intended to create a new society through the removal of anarchy and the maintenance of peace and order. Many more people are arrested: politicians and outspoken opponents of Marcos, journalists, teachers and members of labor, student and peasant organizations. 500,000 guns are confiscated. Congress is suspended. A curfew is imposed from 24:00 to 4:00.
September 26, 1972 The whole country is proclaimed a land reform area and an Agrarian Reform Program is decreed.
November 10, 1977 The CPP head Jose Maria Sison is arrested in Pangasinan by the military and detained in the Military Security Command Unit in Fort Bonifacio.
December 17, 1977 A referendum is held, the result of which again empowers the President to continue in office, and to become Prime Minister as well. Marcos' proposals are shown to be supported by no less than 92% of the voters. November 10, 1977 The CPP head Jose Maria Sison is arrested in Pangasinan by the military and detained in the Military Security Command Unit in Fort Bonifacio. December 17, 1977 A referendum is held, the result of which again empowers the President to continue in office, and to become Prime Minister as well. Marcos' proposals are shown to be supported by no less than 92% of the voters. 1978 Due to the arrest of Bernabe Buscayno and Jose Maria Sison in 1976 and 1977 respectively, Rodolfo Salas takes over the leadership of the Communist Party of the Philippines.
1980 After 7 years and 7 months of solitary confinement, Benigno Aquino, Jr is released to undergo a delicate triple by-pass heart surgery in the US. On the same day, Aquino leaves for the States.
December 17, 1977 A referendum is held, the result of which again empowers the President to continue in office, and to become Prime Minister as well. Marcos' proposals are shown to be supported by no less than 92% of the voters. 1978 Due to the arrest of Bernabe Buscayno and Jose Maria Sison in 1976 and 1977 respectively, Rodolfo Salas takes over the leadership of the Communist Party of the Philippines. January 17, 1981 Martial law is lifted in the entire country due to the forthcoming three day visit of the Pope. February 17, 1981 Pope John Paul II arrives in the Philippines.
August 21, 1983 Benigno Aquino, Jr is assassinated at the Manila International Airport upon arrival from the US. As the assassination is believed to be perpetrated with the knowledge and tolerance of the administration, the reputation of the Marcos regime sinks to an all time low. Demonstrations sweep The Country . As a sign of protest, yellowconfetti is thrown from top floor windows in Makati every afternoon. The assassination is also the reason for a slump in the economy as fewer investors come, due to the dubious reputation of the administration. Investigations are made, fact-finding committees are formed and trials are held to find and prosecute the culprits, but the case drags on and remains basically unsolved.
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