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Matter and Its' Properties

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Lacy Jackson

on 24 September 2015

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Transcript of Matter and Its' Properties

Matter and Its' Properties
If no, then it is an element
All matter is made up of elements. Elements are pure substances that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances. Atoms, compounds, and molecules are all made up of elements.
Example of an element: Magnesium
Magnesium is an element because it is pure and cannot be broken down.
Citations For the Flow Chart
http://www.chem4kids.com/files/atom_electron.html
http://education.jlab.org/qa/compound.html

Building Blocks of Matter
Atoms: the smallest unit of an element that still maintains the chemical identity of the element.
made up of particles called subatomic particles, such as the electrons, protons, and the neutrons, which have charges.
Protons have a postive charge, neutrons have no charge, and electrons have a negative charge.
The protons and neutrons are concentrated in the center of the atom, or the nucleus. The electrons are in constant motion in a set path around the nucleus. These tiny subatomic particles exert force on one another that keeps them together in the form of an atom.
All matter is composed of atoms.
For an example, let's use the neon atom. The neon atom has the identity of Neon, nothing else. It has 10 protons and 10 electrons because protons and electrons are always the same. The electron shells are full, so neon is a non-reactive element.
Building Blocks of Matter
Molecules:
a neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds, or in other words, they are bonded together chemically
May consist of two or more atoms of the same element or two or more different atoms


Mixtures
can be separated into the separate substances that make up the mixture by physical or chemical means
shows the properties of the substances that make it up

Example: Smoke is a mixture of tiny solid particles in atmospheric gasses



Example of a molecule: Molecular nitrogen. Molecular nitrogen consists of two atoms of nitrogen. This is not a compound because the atoms are of the same element
Example of a compound: Table Salt
Table salt is a pure compound because it is the same throughout, but it has two atoms of different elements
All matter can be divided into two categories: pure substances and mixtures
Pure Substances

cannot be separated into two or more substances by ordinary physical or chemical means
can be compounds or elements
are
homogenous
, have uniform chemical composition throughout the whole sample
all properties will be the same, no matter how it is prepared or purified


Example: Pure Gold has only gold atoms,
you cannot separate them
Matter
Does the mixture have the same proportion of components throughout?
Yes, the composition is the same throughout
If the composition is uniform, is considered homogenous
Homogenous mixtures can also be called solutions
The individual parts of the mixture are not easily identifiable

Example: Lemonade is considered a homogenous mixture because the parts are not easily separated, though they can be
No, the mixture is not the same throughout
If the composition is not uniform, the mixture is considered heterogeneous
The individual particles can easily be detected because they are not blended smoothly throughout
Usually can be separated easily through chemical or physical means

Example of a heterogeneous mixture: Italian dressing. If left alone for a while, the solid particles settle at the bottom and the liquid particles are suspended above them because the mixture is
not the same throughout.
Compound: made up of atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded
All compounds are a form of molecule, but not all molecules are compounds.

If yes, then it is a compound
Can the substance be broken down by ordinary chemical means?
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