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Latin American Revolutions

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by

Kelsey Krueger

on 10 July 2014

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Transcript of Latin American Revolutions

Independence Movements
1770-1900

Haitian Revolution
Latin American Revolutions
Latin American Revolutions
were inspired by the Enlightenment
-French Philosophers
-Social Contract, Individual Rights,
Popular Sovereignty
Inspired by
Nationalist Movements
such as in Germany...
and Italy...
Similar to the French Revolution, class
differences played a large role in
South American independence movements
Peninsulares- wealthy Spanish born
citizens who lived in
Latin America
-smallest percentage of the
population
-occupied the highest political positions
in Latin American society
Creoles- Spaniards born in Latin America who could not hold political office, but COULD be army officers
Together the Peninsulares and the Creoles held most of the wealth, power, and land in Latin America
Beneath the Peninsulares and the Creoles were
other groups in the social hierarchy:
mestizos- mixture of European and Indian ancestry
mulattos- mixture of European and African ancestry
slave class- composed of Native American and African slaves
-inspired by the American Revolution
-large slave population, which was treated brutally and lived in poor conditions
-1791: Group of 100,000 slaves revolted against France
Haitian Revolt
-led by Toussaint L'Ouverture
-gained control of the island and
freed all of the enslaved population
-France sent in troops, and captured
L'Ouverture
L'Overture was sent to France
where he died in a French prison
-1802: Haiti declared its independence,
making it the only successful slave revolt
in history
Creoles led the majority of independence movements in Latin America.
mestizos and the other social classes joined in
these groups were inspired by the Enlightenment ideas of equality of freedom
Napoleon's actions in Europe worried many Creoles, and they feared European powers would take over their lands in Latin America.
People in Latin America developed Nationalistic feelings, much like in Europe...
Wanted self rule- and believed in using revolutionary ideas that they heard about in Europe
Creoles & the other "lower" classes used these ideas to justify their rebellions against Spain.
Mexican Revolution!
Independence movement initially lead by the mezitos (mixture of European and Native American)
Led by Padre Miguel y Costilla Hidalgo (Father Miguel Hidalgo)
-crowds marched to Mexico City- but their attempt at a rebellion failed... twice!
-they were defeated by the upper class who feared losing their power to the lower class
Mexican Independence was attained in 1821
Creoles feared losing their power and declared independence from Spain
Augustine de Iturbide became their emperor
In 1823 the
nations of Central
America declared their
independence from Mexico
Nicaragua
Guatemala
Honduras
El Salvador
Costa
Rica
Revolutions in
South America
After revolutions against Spain in Central America, the fire for independence spread to South America
Venezuela
Simon Bolivar
-Creole general
-Led independence movements
throughout South America
-Began his revolutionary movements
in his home country of Venezuela
Columbia
Ecuador
-Spread his revolutionary moments into...
Chile
Simon Bolivar met Jose de
San Martin, who had recently
freed Chile.
Peru
Together Bolivar and
San Martin liberated
Peru
Bolivar had a dream to unite the Spanish colonies of South America into a single country- called Gran Colombia
-His dream was short lived, and political issues separated the countries into their own independent states
Simon Bolivar p.750
1. How did Simon Rodriguez influence
Bolivar?
2. How did Napoleon influence Bolivar?
3. Why do you think Bolivar was given
the nick name "El Libertador"?
4. Which revolutionary leader does
Bolivar seem similar too? Which
leader does he seem different
from?
Nationalism in Latin America p.749
1. Where was the first successful overthrown of European rule in Latin America? Who led this revolt?
2. What was the result of the Mexican revolt led by Miguel Hidalgo and Jose Maria?
3. Which countries did Simon Bolivar win independence for?
4. What did San Martin and Bolivar accomplish together?
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