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Significant People from 1800-1900
Transcript of Significant People from 1800-1900
“Among those who dislike oppression are many who like to oppress.” Napoleon I Prussian Minister-President Bismarck sought to restore his country’s status as a great power by uniting the German states under Prussia’s rule, using war to rally nationalism and wielding the emerging political method of realpolitik to secure the position of the German states. After winning his final war in 1870, Bismarck completed German unification under Prussian leadership before moving forward to build the new Germany’s foreign and domestic policy.
“A government must not waiver once it has chosen it's course. It must not look to the left or right but go forward.” Bismarck Freud Sigmund was a psychologist who studied the human mind, determining that man's actions were dictated by the unconscious and irrational mind. Unlike the previous Enlightenment thinkers, Sigmund did not believe that man was a rational being, but instead an irrational being with entirely irrational drives controlled by impulses. His discoveries and research of the human mind helped prove that a person could actually be sick within the mind, helping to create modern psychology, a virtually untouched science for his time.
“A man should not strive to eliminate his complexes but to get into accord with them: they are legitimately what directs his conduct in the world.” Sigmund Freud Cavour was a leader of Italian unification as the prime minister of Sardinia. Believing in liberal ideals, he established the infrastructure and domestic policies necessary for expansion by building highways, railroads, established civil liberties, and opposed clerical privilege. He strongly used realpolitik ideas with his allies. He made an alliance with Napoleon III which resulted in the defeat of Austria. Cavour contributed to this era by unifying Italy by gaining France as an ally and instigating war on Austria which led to his control of Lombardy. He managed to achieve a unified Italy through his leadership.
“The man who trusts men will make fewer mistakes than he who distrusts them.” Cavour Darwin studied on the HMS Beagle for five years, traveling around South America but making the majority of his discoveries on the Galapagos Islands, discovering that finches had various beak depths and sizes according to their diet, which led to his theory of natural selection. Darwin also theorized that all species evolved from earlier forms, applying this idea to humans as well as other species. Darwin was important as his discoveries changed the way that the natural world and species are viewed from a scientific standpoint. Charles Darwin Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825 and the first Russian King of Poland from 1815 to 1825. He was also the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland and Lithuania.ruled Russia during the chaotic period of the Napoleonic Wars. In the first half of his reign Alexander tried to introduce liberal reforms, while in the second half he turned to a much more arbitrary manner of conduct, which led to the revoking of many early reforms. In foreign policy Alexander gained certain successes, mainly by his diplomatic skills and winning of several military campaigns. In particular under his rule Russia acquired Finland and part of Poland. Alexander I Marx was supportive of the emancipation of women and the family, and he believed that profits were wages stolen from the workers as the bourgeoisie exploited the proletariat for their own good. He theorized that the proletariat would one day conquer the bourgeoisie in a revolution, but this never happened due to changes in Industrialization, a rise in nationalism, and an increase in revisionist socialism. Marx is considered to be one of the most important intellectuals of the 19th century who greatly influenced the 20th century, as Socialism and the Cold War in Eastern Europe may never have happened without his ideas.
“Workers of the world unite; you have nothing to lose but your chains.” Karl Marx Born of the well developed and clashing parliamentary parties in England, the Labour Party became known as the working class political party in the late eighteenth centuries, continuing to grow over time as their influence grew in the House of Commons. Unlike other political parties in Europe, the Labour Party grew around workers and their unions instead of the other way around, creating a base for popularity that would come to replace the Liberal Party as one of the two major political parties in Great Britain, a position which it maintains even today. Labour Party Rhodes was responsible for a lot of the British imperialist activity in South Africa. He was made the prime minister of Britain’s Cape Colony as a result of his success though his diamond mines. He had ambitions of establishing a Cape to Cairo connection to put Britain as the dominant power in Africa. Rhodes went a little overboard on his desire to dominate Africa when he tried to create conflict between Dutch republics which resulted in his forced resignation. During his time, he was very successful and someone many people would have wanted to be however, his power hungry desire to imperialize showed how imperialism can cause problems. Cecil Rhodes is therefore important to remember as the perfect example of the New Imperialist (although he did have a few problems), as he believed that his race was superior to the Africans which he subjugated.
“We must find new lands from which we can easily obtain raw materials and at the same time exploit the cheap slave labor that is available from the natives of the colonies. The colonies would also provide a dumping ground for the surplus goods produced in our factories.” Cecil Rhodes Queen Victoria was queen of Great Britain and Ireland and ruled as the first Empress of India during her 63-year reign from 1837 to 1901 which became known as the Victorian Era. The Victorian Era was a peaceful era for Britain, allowing the country to grow in industry, culture, politics, scientific discoveries, and military progress, improving the power of Britain and further expanding the empire.
“The important thing is not what they think of me, but what I think of them.” Queen Victoria German-Austrian politician and statesman. He was one of the most important diplomats of his era. He was a major figure in the negotiations before and during the Congress of Vienna and is considered both a paragon of foreign-policy management and a major figure in the development of diplomatic praxis. He was the archetypal practitioner of 19th-century diplomatic realism, being deeply rooted in the postulates of the balance of power. Metternich was important due to the part he played in the Congress of Vienna and his skills in diplomacy which Metternich Francisco Goya Francisco Goya was a post-Baroque artist, often known as “the Father of Modern Art”. Francisco
was most well known for his incredibly detailed portraits and other works painted in the Rococo style. Some of his most famous works include
Blindman's Bluff, Saturn Devouring his Son, and Third of May(pictured below). Francisco was important as he helped to start the Rococo movement and created many masterpieces that influenced a great many artists. The Brothers Grimm, Jacob and Wilhelm, were cultural researchers and linguists who compiled many of Germany’s traditional folk and fairy tales into a single volume, influential in the creation of modern day storytelling and entertainment; credited with the most famous fairy tales of all time, the Brothers Grimm were inspirational for many artists and writers such as Walt Disney. However the Grimm Brothers can also be accredited with the development of Germanic philology, the study of languages in history, compiling the first German dictionary and developing the language’s grammar, particularly spoken, with Grimm’s Law among other developments. Grimm Brothers Beethoven studied with Joseph Hayden and became known as a virtuoso pianist. Later in his life time, he lost his hearing, but he still composed, conducted, and performed. He is considered one of the most famous composers of all time for his songs such as Fur Elise, Ode to Joy, and Symphony #5. He also composed piano and violin sonatas, piano concertos, string quartets, and nine symphonies. He composed one opera, Fidelio, and one mass, Missa Solemnis. Beethoven is considered one of the most influential composers of all time and his works are still widely known and played today. Beethoven Scottish historical novelist, playwright, and poet, popular throughout much of the world during his time. Scott was the first English-language author to have a truly international career in his lifetime, with many contemporary readers in Europe, Australia, and North America. His novels and poetry are still read, and many of his works remain classics of both English-language literature and of Scottish literature. Sir Walter Scott