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Classification of artificial stones

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Enrique Serrano Maestro

on 29 April 2015

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Transcript of Classification of artificial stones

Classification of artificial stones
What is ceramics?

Ceramics are a type of material generally manufactured by water, sand, clay and other additives according to the type of ceramic that we want to have. Once this mixture the material must pass through a firing process, at different temperatures depending on the type of ceramic, and so we get our product.

Usually we relate to ceramic vases and other decorative objects, but has more uses.

There are two types of ceramics: Porous and impermeable.

Porous ceramic is fired at a lower temperature than waterproof ceramic. This makes it difficult to vitrify and form pores inside.
We can classify in three parts: fired clay, pottery, refractory.
Fired clay

It is the most common material applied in the porous ceramic. The color depends on its composition, for example, will be red If there are more abundance of iron in its composition.

One of its uses is making bricks.
Fired clay

It is the most common material applied in the porous ceramic. The color depends on its composition, for example, will be red If there are more abundance of iron in its composition.

One of its uses is making bricks.

The clay used in pottery are whitish.

The typical process involves fired ceramics, varnish and re-fired. Thanks to this a polished finish whose characteristic feature is achieved.

With them we can produce housewares and sanitary material.
This type of ceramic can resist high temperatures without melting or being deformed therefore it is used for build some things as a oven.

They are fired at higher temperatures, which causes the quartz and the sand to melt and vitrify. Products manufactured according to this process are more fragile, and impermeable

First stoneware are fired, later are two form to make the appearance:

After being fired (at a temperature between 1,200 and 1,300ºC) pieces are usually enameled and fired again (as a pottery). Alternatively, they are polished to achieve the same shiny, homogeneos result.

Are used for sanutary materials, pavings...
Glazed tiles are ceramic tiles with two very different sides. One side is made of fired ceramic, and will be stuck to the wall, remaining hidden. The other side will be visible, and it is made of vitrified enamel in one or more colors. This side can have relief or it can be smooth.

The principal use is the decoration.
Glazed tile
To make porcelain clay is used a special clay called kaolin.
Once the pieces have been given shape, they are fired at a temperature (between 1,200 and 1,250ºC). the glaze is obtained after a second firing (at 1,450ºC.)

Porcelain is a very good material because is hard, impermeable, wearproof... but is very fragile.

It is used in sanitary material, in the electry power industry and in artistic objects.

This well-known and widely-used material is obtained from the melting of quartz sand.

This substance is combined with others to obtain a mixture with the necessary properties to work it or to improve the final product.

The mixture of all the components is heated up to its melting point. Afterwards it is left to cool down.

Mortar is used to stick together stone materials or to whitewash.

Mortero se utiliza para pegar juntos los materiales de piedra o para blanquear.
Gypsum mortar

It is made with white plaster, water, and sand. Its setting is fast,
but its resistance is low.

It is used to manufacture interior thin walls, to plaster walls
and ceilings, to build moldings, and to fix construction elements.

It is made with lime, sand, and water. It is characterized by being easy to work with, having a great plasticity, and taking a long time to set in both dry and humid environments, Once set, it is impermeable.
Cement mortar

It is the most common material used in construction. Because it is highly resistant to the compression and good adherent.

Es el material más usado en construcción. Debido a que es muy resistente a la comprensión y un buen adherente.


It is a mixture of cement, water, sand, and gravel very resistant to comprenssion.
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