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Transcript of Curriculum Development
Immigration 1897: John Dewey Believed in the balanced integration of subject matter, society, and the child
Dewey's pedagogical process involved identifying students' interests and pursuing experiences & written knowledge to grow in those interests
At the turn of the 20th century, Dewey's progressive educational reconstructivist curriculum theory was on the forefront 1900-1950 John Franklin Bobbitt In the early 20th century, Taylorism took hold in the education world. Named for Frederick Winslow Taylor, an industrial engineer, Taylorism focused on production efficiency
In 1918, Bobbitt, a social behaviorist, espoused that curriculum was mean to prepare students for their roles in society.
He advocated a move away from "classic" subjects in order to teach top-down, systematic, assessment-driven, work-related competencies. Vygotsky & Piaget In the 1920's, Lev Vygotsky introduced the concept of the Zone of Proximal Development, which is still cited regularly by today's teachers.
In the 1930's, Jean Piaget introduce the concepts of assimilation and accommodation, which involve the utilization of students' schema. Teachers today still refer to schema (or prior knowledge activation) during lesson planning. 1930's: Pendulum swings back In 1937, George Counts authored Dare the School Build a New Social Order?
Progressivism was again on the forefront.
Counts argued that curriculum must be designed to overcome injustice and oppression in order to create a democratic society. 1950's Upheavals in our Country and the Education System Brown vs. Board of Ed
Little Rock Nine
Sputnik launched in 1957, a key Cold War event
The launch of Sputnik led to the "sputnik Crisis" and the allocation of funding to our nation's science ed programs. NCLB- 2001 In 2001, the No Child Left Behind Act was passed. It has led to standards based educational "reform", assessment-driven instruction, and an expansion of the federal role in public education. Retrieved from: www.histclo.com Progressive Era:
Two World Wars
America as World Power
Pursuit of Universal Education Retrieved from schmoop.com Retrieved from goodreads.com 1950-1990:
Cold War Era
Education: Back to the Basics
Competency-Based Education Retrieved from talkandroid.com In 1956, Benjamin Bloom created a classification of educational objectives in order to create a more holistic form of education that focused on the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. Today, Bloom's Taxonomy is still alive and well in most schools. In 1964, Jerome Bruner introduced the MACOS curriculum, which focused on the "chain of life". It was highly criticized and largely abandoned shortly after its early implementation.
Bruner also introduced the concept of "spiral curriculum", which is still used today, though perhaps not in the way he envisioned it (standards). In the 1950s, B.F. Skinner, a "radical
behavioralist", sought to understand
behavior as a function of environmental
His research and studies led to the
concept of positive reinforcement. In the 1960's, Ralph Tyler tried to take curriculum "back to the basics" in his Basic Principles of Curriculum & Instruction.
This book sought to make curriculum practical through the utilization of learning objectives, useful learning experiences, and evaluation & revision of the process.
His book was answered by theorists who were critical reconceptualists, those who wanted to move away from the educational "status quo". In the 1970's, the debate between the traditionalists & progressivists intensified.
In 1970, Paulo Freire wrote the controversial Pedagogy of the Oppressed.
Freire is best known for his attack on the "banking model" of education. In 1982, Mortimer Adler wrote the Paidea
Proposal. This proposal divided curriculum
into 5 broad categories: language & fine arts,
math & natural science, history & social studies,
physical education & manual training, and a
general introduction to the "work of the world"
- didactic instruction, coaching, Socratic seminar In the 1980's Michael Apple became a leading critical theorist, focusing on power and the development of democratic schools.
In 1985, Elliott Eisner introduced three paradigms of curriculum: explicit, implicit, and null. He argued for an aesthetic, artistic approach to curriculum design. In 1983, Reagan's "A Nation at Risk" came
out. This began a wave of local, state, &
federal school reform. The findings were
that the U.S. educational system was failing
to meet the national need for a competitive
work force. This ultimately led to a loss
of educator control and a national debate
over values, priorities, & direction. (who owns
the knowledge...) 1990-the present:
Information Era internet
realignment of new world powers
focus on national curriculum
technology In 1993, William Doll, a postmodernist,
presented the 4 R's of the "evolving"
curriculum: richness, recursion,
relations, and rigor. This terminology
is present in many schools today. In 1995, Nel Noddings wrote Philosophy of Education. Noddings advocates for a differentiated curriculum and holistic teaching. She is a strong believer in moral education.