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History of English Language

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hugo sibri

on 2 July 2015

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Transcript of History of English Language

43 A.D.
449 A.D.
2000 BC
850 A.D.
History of English Language
2000 BC The Iberians
2000 B.C. The Iberians, the first invaders of England, overran the island and established their own culture. However
they did not make any contribution to the formation of the English Language.
500 BC The Celts
500 B.C. Celtic had some influence over the grammatical development of English, though, such as the use of the continuous tense (e.g. “is walking” rather than “walks”), which is not used in other Germanic languages. The Celtic language survives today only in the Gaelic languages of Scotland and Ireland, the Welsh of Wales, and the Breton language of Brittany.
Welsh seeking to preserve their culture and identity part from the English.
words that have survived are usually words with geographical significance, and place names. Adopted words include bucket, car, crockery, noggin, gob, slogan, etc.
Some names of rivers remained, like Thames, Wye, Avon, City names like, London, York, and Kent.
43 a.d. The Roman Contribution
They were the third invader of England. Around the first century, Latin did not contribute much more than Celtic.
Some of the remaining words, The Anglo Saxon used were words that have to do with occupations like war and trade: camp cheap, street, wall, wine.
449 a.d.The Angles and The Saxons
The Germanic tribes the Anglos, Saxons, and Jutes brought with them the language which eventually became English (Angle-ish), and they introduced the language into the island.
They set three political powers: Northumbria, Mercia, and Wessex; each had its own dialect of The Anglo-Saxon language.
850-1066 Angle-Saxon Period -Viking Contribution
1066 The Normans
1350-1550 Middle English
The Great Vowel Shift
Great Vowel Shift, a radical change in pronunciation during the 15th, 16th and 17th Century, as a result of which long vowel sounds began to be made higher and further forward in the mouth (short vowel sounds were largely unchanged). In fact, the shift probably started very gradually some centuries before 1400, and continued long after 1700 (some subtle changes arguably continue even to this day). Many languages have undergone vowel shifts, but the major changes of the English vowel shift occurred within the relatively short space of a century or two, quite a sudden and dramatic shift in linguistic terms. It was largely during this short period of time that English lost the purer vowel sounds of most European languages, as well as the phonetic pairing between long and short vowel sounds.
The causes of the shift are still highly debated, although an important factor may have been the very fact of the large intake of loanwords from the Romance languages of Europe during this time, which required a different kind of pronunciation. It was, however, a peculiarly English phenomenon, and contemporary and neighbouring languages like French
Sir Williams Jones and the Idea of
The Proto-Indo-European Language
500 BC
497 a.d. Saint Augustine
1550-1550 1st Modern English Period
The Renaissance was an influential cultural movement that brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation at the dawn of modern history in Europe. It marks the transitional period between the end of the Middle Age and the start of the Modern Age. The English language attained its definitive structure in the 16th century, when spelling began to be standardized and grammar acquired the characteristics known today. At the end of the first period, which corresponds to the Renaissance movement, pronunciation transformed itself: for example, to meet, once pronounced [met], evolved into [mi:t].
1550-1900 2nd Modern English Period
British Imperialism
1380- Merging of Angle Saxon and Norman French - Geoffrey Chaucer
1880-present 3rd Modern English Period

500-600 A.D. Beowulf
The contribution to English is minimal
It is the first English literary work. It marks the beginning of the Old English. It was recited orally from scops in the continent. In the year 550a.d was brought to the Island. Later, in 800 a.d Beowulf was written down by a Christian monk. Therefore, it represents English Pre-literature as well as the beginning of the English Literature.
Latin influenced on the English language at this time, being largely restricted to the naming of Church dignitaries and ceremonies (priest, vicar, altar, mass, church, bishop, pope, nun, angel, verse, baptism, monk, eucharist, candle, temple and presbyter came into the language this way).
William Jones suggested that Sanskrit, Greek and Latin languages had a common root. He was the founder of Indo European linguistics. Jones devised the system of transliteration and managed to translate numerous works into English, among others the Laws of Manu (Manusmriti), Abhiknana Shakuntala, Ritu Samhara, and Gita Govinda.
Proto Indo European was the first proposed proto-language to be widely accepted by linguists. The center of a Proto Indo European root is the ablauting vowel. William Jones conjectured a Proto-Indo-European language had existed many years before. It is believed that PIE was spoken some time before 4000 BC, perhaps before 8000 BC. Although there is no concrete proof to support this one language had existed, it is believed that many languages spoken in Europe and Western Asia are all derived from a common language.

By the late 8th Century, the Vikings (or Norsemen) began to make sporadic raids on the east cost of Britain. They came from Denmark, Norway and Sweden, although it was the Danes who came with the greatest force. Notorious for their ferocity, ruthlessness and callousness, the Vikings pillaged and plundered the towns and monasteries of northern England - in 793, they sacked and looted the wealthy monastery at Lindisfarne in Northumbria - before turning their attentions further south. By about 850, the raiders had started to over-winter in southern England and, in 865, there followed a full-scale invasion and on-going battles for the possession of the country.
Contribution = Appreciable
The event that began the transition from Old English to Middle English was the Norman Conquest of 1066, when William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy and, later, William I of England) invaded the island of Britain from his home base in northern France, and settled in his new acquisition along with his nobles and court. William crushed the opposition with a brutal hand and deprived the Anglo-Saxon earls of their property, distributing it to Normans (and some English) who supported him. This time, there were two language in England; Old English, spoken by the humble and illiterate commons, and French, spoken and written by the ruling classes.
The conquering Normans were themselves descended from Vikings who had settled in northern France about 200 years before (the very word Norman comes originally from Norseman). However, they had completely abandoned their Old Norse language and wholeheartedly adopted French (which is a so-called Romance language, derived originally from the Latin, not Germanic, branch of Indo-European), to the extent that not a single Norse word survived in Normandy.
Geoffrey Chaucer began writing his famous “Canterbury Tales” in the early 1380s, and crucially he chose to write it in English. Other important works were written in English around the same time, if not earlier, including William Langland’s “Piers Plowman” and the anonymous “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight”. But the “Canterbury Tales” is usually considered the first great works of English literature, and the first demonstration of the artistic legitimacy of vernacular Middle English, as opposed to French or Latin.
The Renaissance
The English Renaissance roughly covers the 16th and early 17th Century (the European Renaissance had begun in Italy as early as the 14th Century), and is often referred to as the “Elizabethan Era” or the “Age of Shakespeare” after the most important monarch and most famous writer of the period. The additions to English vocabulary during this period were deliberate borrowings, and not the result of any invasion or influx of new nationalities or any top-down decrees.
Latin (and to a lesser extent Greek and French) was still very much considered the language of education and scholarship at this time, and the great enthusiasm for the classical languages during the English Renaissance brought thousands of new words into the language, peaking around 1600. A huge number of classical works were being translated into English during the 16th Century, and many new terms were introduced where a satisfactory English equivalent did not exist.

Elizabethan era
By the discover of the New Word by Christopher Columbus in 1492, a whole new set of vocabulary was used because of the communication's needs . They shared experiences in which the settlers had been; sailor talk was common to exchange new vocabulary which they heard from the native speakers of those lands. Also, new words referring new things.
1550 The New World
British colonialism had begun as early as the 16th Century, but gathered speed and momentum between the 18th and 20th Century. At the end of the 16th Century, mother-tongue English speakers numbered just 5-7 million, almost all of them in the British Isles; over the next 350 years, this increased almost 50-fold, 80% of them living outside of Britain. At the height of the British Empire (in the late 19th and early 20th Century), Britain ruled almost one quarter of the earth’s surface, from Canada to Australia to India to the Caribbean to Egypt to South Africa to Singapore.
The industrial and scientific advances of the Industrial Revolution created a need for neologisms to describe the new creations and discoveries. To a large extent, this relied on the classical languages, Latin and Greek, in which scholars and scientists of the period were usually well versed. Although words like oxygen, protein, nuclear and vaccine did not exist in the classical languages, they could be (and were) created from Latin and Greek roots. Lens, refraction, electron, chromosome, chloroform, caffeine, centigrade, bacteria, chronometer and claustrophobia are just a few of the other science-based words that were created during this period of scientific innovation, along with a whole host of “-ologies” and “-onomies”, like biology, petrology, morphology, histology, palaeontology, ethnology, entomology, taxonomy, etc.
Contribution= Appreciable
Contribution = Appreciable
Contribution = Maximal
Contribution = Maximal
Contribution = Appreciable
Contribution = Appreciable
Contribution = Substantial
Contribution to English Language = Minimal
Contribution = Appreciable
Contribution = Substantial
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