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Designing Real-World Networks - Lesson 1
Transcript of Designing Real-World Networks - Lesson 1
Designing Real-World Networks
a practical perspective
Faculty of Engineering
B.Eng - Telecommunications Engineering
Nicola Arnoldi, M.Eng.
Office hours: after class or by appointment
Contact: through the course moodle
Cisco CCENT Official Exam Certification Guide
are you familiar with the ISO/OSI Stack?
can you explain how packets travel in an IP network?
tx data flows top-down
rx data flows bottom-up
layers exchange data only with adjacent layers
is destination IP in my ARP table?
send frame to destination MAC address
destination IP in my subnet?
what's your MAC address?
send a frame to my DG
is my DG IP in my ARP table?
What do you mean with Default Gateway?
a.k.a. Gateway of LAST RESORT
the DG is an IP address!
a SVI interface on a multilayer switch
an interface on a router
an IP shared between FHRP
(First Hop Redundancy Protocols)
devices are categorized on a
forwarding packets across different subnets
forwarding frames across collision domains
both forwarding across different subnets and c.d.
Given two hosts,
Let's suppose that
transmit a frame
simultaneously at time
If the two frames collide, then A and B belong
to the same collision domain.
Given two hosts,
Let's suppose that
transmits a broadcast IP packet.
If node B receives the packet, A and B belong to the same broadcast domain.
A group of devices that receive all broadcast messages
from members of that group is called a
broadcast domain. Network broadcast domains
typically are segmented with Layer 3 devices (routers).
every switch/router port is a collision domain
a hub does NOT break collision domains
a switch does NOT break broadcast domains
1 routed port = 1 subnet = 1 broadcast domain
collision domains are split by switches
broadcast domains are split by routers
requirement: different hosts to be configured on different IP subnets
do I need a separate infrastructure? (switches, cabling....)
Virtual LANs (VLANs)
logical separation between LANs in a switching domain
each VLAN is given an ID number (VLAN - ID) - 4 byte ethernet additional header
every switchport is configured to exchange traffic on a specific ID
inter-switch ports carry traffic from multiple VLANs (Trunk Ports - 802.1q)
same of having multiple switches (one for every VLAN)
how do we separate frames belonging to different vlans?
L2 Redundancy and STP
don't care about source or destination IP!
which port should I forward this L2 frame to?
if destination MAC is not in the MAC Address Table
FLOOD IT ON EVERY PORT
every port has one (or more) IP address
routes packets according to the Routing Table
Network Design Criteria
redundant links are loops
sometimes loops are unwanted...
Problems that a switch has to solve
mac address learning
forwarding and filtering
what is this piece of hardware capable of?