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Middle East

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by

Wynona Marie Silverio

on 6 March 2014

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Transcript of Middle East

Syria Civil war
The war on Christianity
Terrorism

Current Events
Forms of Government
Political System
Lies at the middle of the vast Islamic realm. To the north and east of it, respectively, lie
Turkey
and
Iran
, with Muslim Turkestan beyond the latter. To the south lies the
Arabian Peninsula
. And to the west lie the
Mediterranean Sea
and
Egypt
, and the rest of
North Africa
.
Territorial Boundaries
Countries in Middle East:
Bahrain
Cyprus
Egypt
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Jordan
Kuwait
Lebanon

Middle East
Middle East
Northern Cyprus
Oman
Palestine
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syria
Turkey
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Physical Geography
Size:
8,804,395 sq km


Percent of Earth's Land:
6.2%


Mount Damavand, Iran
18,406 ft
Highest Point:
Lowest Point:
Dead Sea (between Israel and Jordan)
1,388 ft below sea level
Largest Country (by Area):
Saudi Arabia, 1,960,582 sq km
Largest country by population:
Iran, 79,853,900
Climate and Weather
Extremely hot and dry
Summers across the Middle East are very windy, with average temps near
85°F (29°C)
, but often soaring to way above
100°F (38°C)
.
Sandstorms when strong winds are common in the desert areas.
Winter brings some milder conditions to the peninsula with scattered rain.
Important Landforms
Anatolian Plateau,
Turkey
Historical Background
The Middle East is described as the cradle of civilization:
1)
Division of society
into a number of social classes;
2) Development of large, densely populated urban centers, or the
rise of cities
;
3) Emergence of centralized political institutions, leading to the
formation of the state
.
The geopolitical term "
Middle East
" was first coined in 1902 by a United States naval officer
Alfred Thayer Mahan.
Lagman, Lance Chester
Medrano, Beaulah Eleanor
Silverio, Wynona Marie
1LM2

Arabian Desert
Bodies of Water
Euphrates River
Tigris River
Indus River
Flora
Cultural Geography
Population:
Over
350 million
people live in the Middle East.

In the desert environment, annual plants have a very short life span, growing, blooming and seeding in a few short days, covering the ground, when moisture content permits, with a patchy carpet of low-lying blooms.
Desert perennials are sparse, tough and spiny with deep root systems.
Fauna
Desert animals are rarely seen, being generally nocturnal and/or underground dwellers to avoid the heat.
Mammals have a difficult existence throughout the area, due to human disturbance and the fact that the species is not well adapted to drought.
Natural Resources
The Middle East has a variety of resources including
salt, phosphate
(used in fertilizers) and
copper
.
The most valuable resource is
oil
.
About 30 of the world’s countries have significant oil reserves. But five of these countries, all located in the North Africa/Southwest Asia realm.
There are huge amounts of oil beneath the desert on the
Arabian Peninsula
.
Jewish
-
Israel
is home for much of the Jewish population in the Southwest Asia.
- Jewish people differ in their religious beliefs, though most practice some form of Judaism.
- The
Law of Return
in Israel says that a Jew from any other country can automatically have citizenship in Israel.

Berber
- Many Berber tribes live in the
mountains
and
deserts
.
- Most Berbers living in mountainous areas are
farmers
.
- The majority of Berber tribes are
Muslim
.
Bedouin
- Their most important animal is the
camel
.
- Now, the Bedouin live mostly in
Saudi Arabia, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq
.
- Bedouin tribes are ruled by tribal leaders called
sheikhs
.
- Most Bedouins practice
Islam
.
Kurdish
-
Southwest Asia
is also home to the Kurdish people.
- Most Kurds today are
Muslims.

- Kurdish Muslims are usually
less strict
about certain Islamic practices.
- Kurdish religion used to be made up of a
mixture of several different religions
.

Turkish
- The Turks are an ethnic group
based on language
—Turkish.
- They live mostly in
Turkey
and
Iran
.
- Most of the people who live in Turkey are of Turkish descent.
- Most Turks practice some form of
Islam
.
- Like Kurds, Turkish people are
rarely strict
about some Islamic practices.

Persian
- The Persians are an ethnic group that lived in
Iran
before the arrival of Islam in the 7th century.
- Persians make up about
half of Iran’s current population
.
- They have their own language called
Persian or Farsi
.
- Most Persians in Iran today practice
Shi’a Islam
, but some are Sunni and other religions.

Folk and Popular Culture
The
Turkish people
are well known for their architecture.
Mosques
in Turkey are a good example of Turkish architecture.

Persian art
and architecture is also well known.
Many people consider
Persian rugs
to be among the finest in the world.

Beliefs / Ideology
Christianity
and
Judaism
are major religions practiced in
Southwest Asia
.
Most people there are
Muslims
. This means that they practice the religion of
Islam
.
Ninety percent
of people in the region are Muslims.
Tools and Skills (Livelihood)
Organization
Literacy and Development
Education is
free
in many countries in the Southwest Asia.
The literacy rates for people over fifteen years of age are:
77% in Syria
;
79% in Iran
;
95% in Israel
; and
79% in Saudi Arabia
.
In some countries women’s education is not valued as much as men’s education.
Literacy rates also have an impact on a country’s economy and its development.
For centuries, most of the Middle East was under the political control of the Ottoman Empire which was centered on Istanbul, which is in present-day Turkey.
Language and Dialect
Arabic
- considered a
holy language
as it is the language of the Quran.
Turkish
- over
63 million
people speak Turkish
Hebrew
- language of the
Jewish people
in biblical times, and most of the
Old Testament
was written in Hebrew
Kurdish
- has never had the opportunity to become unified and its dialects are generally separated into groups.
Persian
- also known as
Farsi
, is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan
Gecko
Leptien's Mastigure
(Uromastyx aegyptia)
Horned Viper
Camel
Ancient empires of this region were termed "
hydraulic civilizations
" because the states strive to develop water resources to the maximum extent possible.
In the desert,
oases
around springs and wells are islands of life in seas of sand.
Freshwater resources
- precious to all the region's people because of their scarcity.
Use of
irrigation
- agricultural production was made possible.
Jordan River
Tree of Life

Arabs
- The term "
Arab
" referred to the peoples that inhabited the
northern
and
central portions
of the Arabian Peninsula.
- Arab peoples make up almost the entire populations of
Jordan, Syria, Egypt, Lebanon, and other states of Southwest Asia
.
- The majority of Muslims practice
Sunni Islam
.
Public Service
Health
Traditions
Falcon
Arabian Oryx
Vulture
Argan
Land of Socotra
Birth of the baby
(Muslims)
Two rituals
are done after the birth of the child:
1.
Prayer
is whispered in the newborns ear as the first sound it hears.
2. After seven days, a
ceremony
is held.
For several weeks after a baby is born, family, friends and neighbors will visit the new parents and grandparents.
They
weigh the baby
and an equivalent amount of silver is given to charity.
A traditional dish,
mughli
- a pudding made of semolina flour, sugar and cinnamon, topped with fresh nuts - is served, along with coffee or tea.
Courtship, Weddings and Marriage
The tradition of the exchanging of
wedding rings
has been said to originate in the Middle East.
Muslim marriage is conventionally considered to be a
contract
rather than a sacrament.
Marriages are
arranged
by the fathers of the bride and groom.
Wedding ceremonies are
elaborate affairs
and typically last three days. Weddings in villages may be attended by the entire village.
The wedding shower occurs seven days after the wedding and is accordingly named "
Sabaa
", the Arabic word for seven.
It is common for a newly married couple to move in with the groom's parents.
Funerals
Sharia
(Islamic religious law) calls for burial of the body, preceded by a simple ritual involving
bathing
and
shrouding
the body, followed by
salah
(prayer).
Cremation
of the body is forbidden.
Loved ones and relatives are to observe a
3-day mourning period
. During that time, the widow is
not to remarry
, interact with na-mahram (with whom she can marry).
The position of the deceased should be faced towards
Mecca
.
Israeli scientists
developed the first fully computerized, no-radiation, diagnostic instrumentation for breast cancer.
The failure of governments to provide comprehensive healthcare services has led to health care being taken over by
market forces
.
Failure of public health systems has also led to the widespread
distribution of risk factors
for disease, such as smoking, obesity, and hypertension
Country
Political System
Bahrain
Egypt
Iraq
Iran
Israel
Lebanon
Libya
Qatar
Saudia Arabia
Syria
Monarchical rule, limited role for a semi-elected parliament
Political System: Interim authorities, elections due early 2014
Parliamentary documentary
Islamic Republic
Parliamentary Democracy
Parliamentary Democracy
Interim governing body
Absolutist Monarchy
Absolutist Monarchy
Family-rule autocracy dominated by minority Alawite sect
Family
Important part of Middle East culture: A man may be called
Ibn
("son of") followed by his father's name or
Abu
("father of") followed by his child's name.
In traditional Arab societies the
family unit
is an extended family. All living together, in rural areas particularly.
Rug making
Fishing
From earliest times, people built irrigation systems to carry water from rivers to crops. Ancient Egyptians used a
shaduf
. Modern technological methods include drip irrigation and desalination.
Other livelihood:
In some regions of Middle East, children (from marginalized families) are given the privilege to be educated without charge.
The government also provides residences for their citizens.
Full transcript