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Chapter Four Visual Sources
Transcript of Chapter Four Visual Sources
China's Eternal Empire Terra-Cotta Army of Shihuangdi Within Shihuangdi's tomb complex lies the vast expression of the eternal character within the empire. The tomb complex was built during his lifetime. Construction started in 246 B.C.E. and was still incomplete after his death. Terra-Cotta Infantry Terra-Cotta Archer This Terra-Cotta archer represents the individuality shown in each of the statues. Bronze Horse-Drawn Chariot Along with the many finds in the tomb complex were two remarkably detailed bronze carriages. Each as half-sized models and being pulled by four horses. Protection of the carriage was given by two coachmen with swords, one on each side. These finds were not part of the Terra-Cotta army, and were found close to the actual burial place of the emperor. Found in over 3,000 separate pieces, with seven kilograms of gold and silver decorating the horses and carriage. Accompanying the gold and silver are many geometric and cloud patterns. The round roof is believed to represent the sun, the sky, or the heavens above. The carriages were found in wooden coffins facing the west. The purpose of the carriage differs from scholar to scholar, possibly intended to allow the emperor to view his realm in the afterlife, or possibly it served as a one-time transport to the emperors soul in the afterlife. By:
18th Century Representation Of Qin Shihuangdi Although there are no paintings that have survived his reign, he became a subject of paintings in following centuries. A depiction of a famous scene from his reign is shown in this painting. It shows how Shihuangdi allegedly ordered the burning of any books criticizing his policies. He also ordered the execution of many respected Confucian scholars, he did so by burying hundreds alive. Shihuangdi view of the empire he had created was grand. In his thinking the empire was eternal and universal, encompassing the entire known world. It was to be cosmic, he offered sacrifices to the spirits, which brought them, and rival kingdoms of China, into a unity and harmony. He also pursued personal immortality, using pills, herbs, and potions. The tomb was discovered in early 1974 when Chinese peasants digging a well come across a small corner of the complex. Archeologists have continued the excavations and have uncovered thousands of life sized ceramic soldiers varying in ranks, ready for battle and equipped with real weapons. Other statues have been uncovered also. They were all designed to accompany Shihuangdi into the after life. Although this was a Huge discovery, it was only a fraction of the actual complex covering over 56 square kilometers, centering on the still unexcavated burial mound of Shihuangdi. The individuality of these soldiers have long impressed scholars. They have argued over how they were produced for a long while. Some argue they were modeled on actual soldiers, however based on more research some say they were "mass produced" in well organized workshops.The workshops produced limited face shapes, body parts, hairstyles and uniforms, then assembling them in various combinations. This image shows just a small amount of the over six thousand ceramic Terra-Cotta army soldiers that protected the underground world. Complete with horses and chariots, the army faced the pass in the mountains, in which they would have expected the enemies to come from. Buried along with all the soldiers and structures were workers who had died or were killed during the construction, as well as sacrificed aristocrats and concubines. The tomb complex was a parallel society, built by a culture that believed the living and the dead formed a single community. The complex was complete with walls, palaces, cemeteries, demons, spirits, soldiers, administrators, entertainers, calenders, texts, divination records, and all extravagances appropriate for royalty. in Chinese thinking this geographic feature was home to gods, spirits and immortals. Shihuangdi would rule forever, even though he was invisible to the living. Shihuangdi Qin Shihuangdi was China's first emperor. He brought unity to warring states of China violently and forcefully. By doing so he gained respect of Chinese for many centuries. However, in his own time he was widely hated and there were numerous attempts at his assassination. This is an image of Shihuangdi, painted in later centuries. We chose to add this image to our visual sources to show a depiction of how the emperor looked. Conclusion Qin Shihuangdi was self glorifying and selfish in the sense he wanted much for himself as in immortality. As a ruler he did well in attempting to create a universal empire but not in the best way. However he would receive criticism for using such force and violence as a way of creating the unity he strived for, he was much like Han Fei in that he was a harsh ruler who killed those who did not obey and destroyed anything he view unimportant or harmful of his views and people. He was a legalist. He also received praise for creating such a large empire, as well as the unity he brought to the warring states of China. Shihuangdi's funerary arrangements are unique in its self. Workers who died during construction were buried with him along with many sacrificed aristocrats, also by having an entire army created and built to be buried with him for his protection makes him unique. This is similar to the ancient Egyptains building of the Sphinx for protection and defending of the pyramids it stood by. His tomb complex is much like a mound, and far larger than we know of now.