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The Women of World War One

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Katie McNmara

on 15 April 2013

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Transcript of The Women of World War One

Women of World War I World War I gave women the opportunity to begin working in a normally male dominated work force. Once their husbands went off to war, they took it as a chance to prove that they could do more than their normal domestic responsibilities. Jobs for women included industrial work, nurses, fighting on the battlefield, tending to the farmland, and sometimes spies. Most women were allowed to do almost anything except fire a gun. HEY KATIE Ruth Wilson in 1918, she was recruited by the NSA for cryptanalogy. She helped break many codes used
by Central and South America. She also became a Japanese linguist. Elizabeth S. Friedman (1892-1980) Elizabeth was recruited in 1916. She helped document the evolution
and history of secret communications. She served as a cryptanalyst, someone who studies and
translates secret writings or codes. Many times she broke encoded radio messages used by international smugglers. Anna Wagner Keichline (1889-1943) Anna was an architect who was active in World War One. She was named as a special agent in Washington D.C. She was around twenty eight and could operate and take care of her own car. She preferred dangerous and exciting jobs that made her use her incredible intelligence. { Famous Women } Agnes Meyer Driscoll (1889-1971) Agnes majored in mathematics, music, foreign languages, and physics. She was recruited as a navy chief and assigned to the Director of naval Communications Code and Signal unit. Because she was interested in technology and science, she advocated the use of machines to encipher and decipher messages. She was the co-developer of the U.S. Navy’s CM cipher machine. She broke Japan’s Blue Book Code and Red Book Code. { Women in Factories } Most of the women who worked in factories worked in ammunition factories. They were called Munitionettes. This was one of the hardest and most dangerous jobs, but it was also one of the most important. Women in these factories were exposed to many kinds of dangerous chemicals and explosive materials. Also, they were without protective gear so gases like sulfur caused harm to their bodies. There was also the risk of explosionsin the factory, which could injure or kill many workers. Women also worked in machinery, supply, and public works departments so they were able to keep a steady amount of supplies with the soldiers as they fought. { Propaganda } The government used many different propaganda posters to encourage women to join the work force. These posters were put up around town so that women would see them and be encouraged by slogans like "The war will fail without you." Posters: These posters were used all over the world to encourage women to begin working to support their husbands and other loved ones as they fight. { Women as Nurses } VAD V oluntary A id D etatchment VADs came from a variety of different backgrounds such as cooks and laundry workers. Since they were voluntary nurses, they did not receive payment. Also, they did not have enough time to go through large amounts of medical training, their training was very basic. If they came across a wounded soldier on the battle field they were able to provide them with basic medical treatment. FANY F A N Y irst id ursing eomanry FANYs jobs were far less desirable than those of a VAD. FANYs had to drive ambulances, clean and disinfect the rooms that soldiers were put in when they were wounded, and often times they had to dispose of dead bodies. Also, FANYs had to bathe the soldiers and run soup kitchens. { The Women's Land Army } Since German submarines began sinking American supply ships bringing food to Soldiers in Britain, America had to become self sufficient with food. Women had to begin farming food in Britain in order for Soldiers to be able to eat. Also, the work on farms was very tedious because fuel had to be preserved so seed planting and harvesting was done by hand and horses were used to plow the soil. Women were supplied with brown corduroy pants, green jerseys, leggings, a WLA hat and hob nail boots to wear to farm in. For special occasions, WLA members wore their given service uniforms- brown corduroy pants , brown boots, fawn knee-length woolen socks, a green v-necked pullover, a fawn shirt and a brown cowboy style hat. When working, many members of the WLA adapted their working uniform to suit themselves. In the summer, the breeches frequently became shorts. The women in the WLA did all the jobs that were required to make a farm function normally - threshing, plowing, tractor driving, reclaiming land, drainage etc. Their wages were set by the Agricultural Wages Board. The wage for someone in the WLA over the age of 18 was only 18 Shillings a week after the deductions of lodging and food. Today, 18 Shillings is equal to 1 British Pound or $1.53. { Rationing } During WWI, rationing was introduced allowing people to only buy certain amounts of food, gas, etc. Women were asked to stop wearing and purchasing corsets because the metal in them could be used to build things needed for the war. Newspaper Articles { Statistics } Over the course of the war-
200,000 women took up jobs in governmental departments.
500,000 took up clerical positions in private offices
250,000 worked in agricultural positions
700,000 women took up jobs in the munitions industry, which was considered to be very dangerous work.
Women participated in hard, heavy work- including ship building and furnace stoking.
July 1914, there were 3.2 million women in employment. { The War Ends } When the war ended in November 1918, men returned to their jobs and some women returned back to their old lives of raising children and tending to their homes. However, some women continued to work for various reasons such as the loss of their husbands or just for their own independent reasons. During World War One, women started putting forward irreplaceable efforts. The need for female participation was absolutely necessary in almost all countries because men were getting wounded and killed left and right. The need for women in the war did not stop there. They rose again in World War Two. Women were either on the home front or the front-lines.World War One was the beginning of a new era for women to contribute in war and to be recognized for efforts outside of the home. The Starting Point There was a maximum work week of 50 hours in the summer and 48 hour in the winter. The normal days of work would be five and a half days a week, working only Saturday afternoon and having Sunday off. Along with their weekly pay, all members of the WLA that were more than 20 miles from their home would receive a free rail transportation for a visit home every six months.
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