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World War

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on 13 February 2015

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Transcript of World War

World War
I & Russian Revolution

A New Kind Of War
Stalemate on the Western Front
The Germans fought their way through Belgium toward Paris. The Belgians resisted more than Germany generals that they had expected
Poison Gas- It was a new weapon that can blind or choke it's victims or it can cause burns and blisters
In 1915, Germany used zeppelins,large gas-filled balloons, to bomb the English coast.
Winning the war
by 1917, european societies were cracking under the strain of war

Making the peace
President Wilson personally went to Paris to try and make peace. He was sure that it would bring peace, but it didn't.
Revolution and civil war in Russia
In 1913, it became the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty.
Then in 1914 a Russian Empire stretched from the Eastern Europe Empire to the Pacific Ocean.
Nicholas had failed to solve Russia's economical problems.
By 1916 the nobles killed Rasputin on December 29, 1916.
The wars affected the Russian's and left the starving families in the streets.
waging total war
Europe had total war, but in order to achieve it the governments had to take stronger role in directing the lives of economic and cultural people
Britain forced universal military conscription which forced young men to be ready for military/ other services
propaganda was used to motivate military in Britain before conscription started in 1916

governments raised taxes and borrowed massive amounts of money to help the cost of war
Germany had an struggle with feeding their people after Britain blocked any good from reaching Germany
women took over men jobs as they left to fight
when food shortages came up in Britain, women went to fields to grow their nations food.

Germany started sending 15 yr old men to the war
Russia's soldiers started to leave to join in a revolution back home ( this killed Russian morale because troops were abandoning their post).
victory at last
germans won, war was ended and crowds celebrated the armistice
The Great War Begins
During this time, the Olympic games had started in 1896 and the First Universal peace conference in 1889.
A German Chancellor "Otto Von Bismarck" said that the great war will start in the east and his prediction was correct.
Alliances Draw Lines
Europe-Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Britain, France, and Russia made a deal with each other that they would protect one another. They thought by doing this it would make peace by creating powerful combinations.
In 1882 Bismarck formed the Triple Alliance with Italy and Austria-Hungary.
Then the war erupted and they were known as the central powers.
Rivalries and Nationalism Increase Tension
Britain felt threatened by the economic growth, but Germany felt fear because they thought Russia would become an unbeatable competitor due to their population and their supplies.
In 1871 the French lost the Franco-Prussia war.
Then in 1912 some Balkan states wanted to attack Turkey, they took a large amount of land from them.
Alliances Kick In
Britain and Italy remained uncommitted, although Italy chose to stay neutral.
Germany wanted to defeat France faster because they wanted to fight Russia.
Britain declared war against Germany on August 4th
Reaction To The War
Unlike other countries, Britain and Russia were actually happy about the wars.
The believed that they were fighting for justice and a better world
Soon the young men rushed to enlist in the wars
The Costs of War
Although millions of soldiers died or were wounded, the human and material costs were expensive during the war.
The expenses for the damage of the war took a great toll as well. The lands from France to Russia were just demolished; from what used to be farms, factories, churches, and houses became rubble. They had to rebuild these buildings but the costs of the reconstruction would be outrageous. So, the Allies tried to have the losers to make "reparations".
Although millions of soldiers died or were wounded, the human and material costs were expensive during the war.

The Paris Peace Conference
The winning allies got together and met at the Paris Peace Conference to talk about the future of Europe. Russia and The Central Powers had no say in the negotiations discussed.
-Wilson had more of a drive for "peace without victory", from the fourteen points.
-David Lloyd George, british prime minister, swore to build something called "fit for heroes" which is 'a goal that would cost money'.
-Then there was Georges Clemenceau, a French leader who's goal was to make Germany weaker so they wouldn't ever be able to threaten France again.

The Treaty of Versailles
In June of 1919, representatives of the German republic were forced to sign the treaty that the allies made at the palace of Versailles that was outside of Paris. The treaty claims that it was Germany's fault for the war and Germany also had to make reparations for the damages of the war and retirement money for the soldiers from the war or their families.(about $30 billion, about $2.7 trillion today)
The treaty also reduced the lands of Germany, for the purpose of making them weaker.
Outcome of the Peace Settlements
Allies made more treaties with the other Central Powers, which made others unsatisfied as well.
Africa, Asia, and the Pacific were confident in the Paris Peace Conference, they thought it would give more respect and may stop imperial rule.
The establishment of the league of nations was inspired from The Paris Peace Conference.
Republican Senator, Henry Cabot Lodge wanted to put limitations on the treaty and so that the U.S. wouldn't have to fight in the future wars. But, Wilson didn't agree with Henry's conditions so the senate wouldn't ratify the treaty- so the U.S. didn't joined the league.
Full transcript