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Wheelock caput xxix

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Alexandra Durham

on 21 May 2016

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Transcript of Wheelock caput xxix

Singular
Wheelock caput xxix

imperfect tense, subjunctive mood
present and imperfect tenses, subjunctive mood of sum & possum
result clauses

The
imperfect tense of the subjunctive mood
is quite simple to form and to recognize, and it is formed the same way for all verbs no matter their conjugation or if they are irregular.
Simply take the
present active infinitive
(i.e., the 2nd principal part) and
add personal endings
(
-m, -s, -t
, etc. for active voice;
-r, -ris, -tur
, etc. for passive voice) and
lengthen the "
-e
" at the end of the infinitive wherever possible
. In this presentation you will see paradigms for 1st and 3rd conjugation (and the 1st person singular for other conjugations); see the appendix of your book for full lists of forms for all conjugations.
Here are imperfect tense forms of the subjunctive mood for
laudāre
(1st conjugation):
Active voice
Passive voice
1st
2nd
3rd
Singular
Plural
Singular
Plural
laudārem
laudārēs
laudāret
laudārēmus
laudārētis
laudārent
laudārer
laudārēris
laudārētur
laudārēmur
laudārēminī
laudārentur
And here are imperfect tense forms of the subjunctive mood for
agere
(3rd conjugation):
Active voice
Passive voice
Singular
Plural
Plural
1st
2nd
3rd
agerem
agerēs
ageret
agerēmus
agerētis
agerent
agerer
agerēris
agerētur
agerēmur
agerēminī
agerentur
And here are the 1st person singular forms for the other conjugations:
2nd conjugation
(
monēre
)
Active voice
Passive voice
monērem
monērer
3rd conjugation "
-iō
"
(
capere
)
Active voice
Passive voice
caperem
caperer
4th conjugation
(
audīre
)
Active voice
Passive voice
audīrem
audīrer
The irregular verbs
sum
and
possum
follow a more consistent pattern in the subjunctive mood than in the indicative mood. Since
possum
is a compound of
sum
(
potis
+
sum
), these two verbs will be very similar in their present tense forms. In the imperfect tense, they will follow the same formula as the regular verbs you have just seen (present active infinitive + personal endings with the "
-e
" at the end of the infinitive lengthened wherever possible).
Present tense
Singular
Plural
1st
2nd
3rd
1st
2nd
3rd
sim
sīs
sit
sīmus
sītis
sint
possim
possīs
possit
possīmus
possītis
possint
Imperfect tense
Singular
Plural
essem
essēs
esset
essēmus
essētis
essent
possem
possēs
posset
possēmus
possētis
possent
The
imperfect subjunctive is used
in a variety of subordinate clauses
when the main verb is in a past tense
(i.e., imperfect, perfect, or pluperfect). Like the present tense of the subjunctive mood, there are several ways to translate the imperfect tense of the subjunctive mood. In a purpose clause, for example, we can use the word "might" (NB: for the present tense we use "may"):
Hoc dīxit
ut eōs
iuvāret
.
Hoc fēcit
nē urbs
caperētur
.
He said this
so that
he might help
them
.
He said this
to
help
them
.
She did this
so that the city
might
not

be captured
.
Both the present tense and the imperfect tense of the subjunctive mood are used in
result clauses
. Result clauses are
subordinate (i.e., dependent) clauses that express the result or outcome of the action of the main clause
(remember, purpose clauses tell the
reason
behind the main clause). They are introduced by
ut
("that") in the positive and
ut...nōn
("that...not"; another negating word can be used in place of
nōn
) in the negative. If purpose clauses answer the question "why?" that is implicit in the main clause,
result clauses answer the question "what was the result/outcome?"
of the main clause.
There is often another clue that you are looking at a result clause (instead of, say, a purpose clause):
in the main clause there will often be a "so" or "such" word
. Here are the big six to know:
tam
, adv.,
so, to such a degree
(used with adjectives and adverbs)
ita
, adv.,
so, thus
(used with adjectives, verbs, and adverbs)
sīc
, adv.,
so, thus
(used with verbs)
tantus, -a, -um
, adj.,
so large, so great, of such a size
tālis, -e
, adj.,
such, of such a sort
tot
, indecl. adj.,
so many, as many
So let's take a look at some sentences that include dependent subjunctive clauses. Take note of which are purpose clauses and which are result clauses, and how each type is translated.
Haec fēcit
ut urbem servāret
.
Tanta fēcit
ut urbem servāret
.
Tam strēnuē labōrat
ut multa perficiat
.
Strēnuē labōrat
ut multa perficiat
.
Hoc tantā benevolentiā dīxit
ut eōs nōn offenderet
.
Hoc magnā benevolentiā dīxit
nē eōs offenderet
.
She did these things
so that she might save the city
.
She did such great things
that she saved the city
.
(purpose clause)
(result clause)
He works so energetically
that he accomplishes many things
.
(result clause)
He works energetically
so that he may accomplish many things
.
(purpose clause)
She said this with such great kindness
that she did not offend them
.
(result clause)
She said this with great kindness
so that she might not offend them
.
(purpose clause)
It is possible, however, not to have a "so" or "such" word in the main clause before a result clause:
Saltus erat angustus
ut paucī Graecī multōs mīlitēs prohibēre possent
.
The pass was narrow,
so

(as a result)
a few Greeks were able to stop many soldiers
.
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