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12 Slavery & Reform
Transcript of 12 Slavery & Reform
Other Social Movements
We have already learned about several key components of the unit on slavery.
•Transatlantic Slave Trade – The export of African slaves from Africa to the Americas.
•Triangular Trade – The triangular exchange of slaves, rum, finished goods, and crops between the Americas, Europe, and Africa.
•The Middle Passage – journey slaves were forced to take from Africa to the West Indies (the Americas).
Dred Scott sued his owner, Sandford, for his freedom when his previous owner died. Scott’s claim was that since he temporarily lived in the free territory of Illinois, that just because he moved to Missouri he should not still be a slave (Once free always free principal). The Supreme Court ruled that slaves were not citizens, so they had no right to sue under American law and that the Missouri Compromise and other laws restricting slavery in the territories was unconstitutional. This is still one of the Supreme Court’s most infamous decisions.
The economy of the south was struggling after the Revolutionary War as the prices of tobacco, rice, and indigo dropped. But the cotton gin quickly revived it. It gave southern farmers a powerful crop. Cotton was not profitable because it was a pain to pick out the sticky seeds. Eli Whitney’s cotton gin, though, solved that problem in 1793, and this coincided with radical increases in demand for cotton in England’s new textile mills. The cotton gin meant southern farmers could easily meet England’s high demand!
Southern society centered on agriculture and five main groups:
• Planters - Wealthiest members of society, the males were concerned with managing farm, crops, and slaves, while the women saw to raising children, running households (and house slaves), and social duties…these marriages were often arranged (this was where the ‘old south’ money was found.
• Yeomen - Owners of small farms of about 100 acres, they worked long hours and may or may not have owned a few slaves.
• Poor whites - Often lived on land that could not grow crops, they survived by hunting, fishing, raising small gardens (subsistence farming) and doing odd jobs for those with money.
• Freed African Americans - Pretty much the same description as poor whites, but poorer, with less money, and fewer political rights.
• Slaves - African Americans owned by planters and yeomen, forced to work their fields or whatever else they made them do.
Life in the Cotton South
•Most white southerners had strong religious beliefs, and the church became the social center of the communities…white southerners often used religion to justify their place in society.
•250,000 freed African Americans lived in the South in 1860, both in rural and urban areas. They faced discrimination, were paid little for the work they did, and many laws were passed limiting their rights. They could not vote, travel freely, and needed a white person represent them in business deals. Many white southerners even argued that free African Americans were incapable of taking care of themselves.
Nat Turner 6:29
Americans from a variety of backgrounds actively opposed slavery. The organized action to end to slavery was called abolition.
Abolitionists came from different backgrounds and opposed slavery for various reasons. Some believed African Americans should have the same treatment as white Americans, while others were opposed to full equality.
The American Colonization Society was founded in 1817 to establish a colony of freed slaves in Africa, and eventually Liberia was founded on the west coast of Africa in 1822.
Many people worked very hard to spread the abolitionist message. William Lloyd Garrison published an abolitionist newspaper, the Liberator, and helped found the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Angelina and Sarah Grimke, two white southern women, were activists who wrote antislavery works, including American "Slavery As It Is".
They would also become women's rights advocates
Frederick Douglass was an American social reformer, orator, writer and statesman. After escaping from slavery, he became a leader of the abolitionist movement, gaining note for his dazzling oratory and incisive antislavery writing.
Sojourner Truth was a former slave who argued for both women and African rights; impressive as a leader because she never learned to read or write, but had great speaking power.
Underground Railroad -a network of people who arranged transportation and hiding places for fugitives, or escaped slaves. Fugitives would travel along routes leading them to northern states or to Canada. Harriet Tubman, an escaped slave, led her family and more than 300 slaves to freedom.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin - by Harriet Beecher Stowe, a Connecticut-born teacher at the Hartford Female Academy and an active abolitionist, featured the character of Uncle Tom, a long-suffering black slave around whom the stories of other characters revolve. The sentimental novel depicts the reality of slavery while also asserting that Christian love can overcome something as destructive as enslavement of fellow human beings.
Story of US - Slavery 30mins
Second Great Awakening
Common School Movement
Reform Movements• Renewed religious faith led to movements to reform society. • Urban growth had caused problems. • Members of the middle class, especially women, led the efforts.• They tackled alcohol abuse, prison and education reform, and slavery.
- Church membership increased significantly
during this period.
• Swept upstate New York and frontier regions
and later spread to New England and the South.
Second Great Awakening - Christian renewal movement during 1790s and early 1800s.
• Charles Finney was an important leader.
- Believed each person was responsible for own
- Should prove faith by doing good works.
- These ideas angered some traditional ministers, like
Boston’s Lyman Beecher.
- Many Americans thought alcohol
abuse caused family violence,
poverty, and criminal behavior.
- Message spread by American
Temperance Society and
American Temperance Union
An organized effort to stop people from drinking hard liquor.
- Dorothea Dix led movement to reform prison system
- Reformers worked to remove the mentally ill, runaway children, and
orphans from prisons.
- Governments responded by building mental hospitals, reform schools
for children, and houses of correction that provided education for
Common School Movement - wanted all children taught in a common place regardless of wealth.
• Horace Mann was a leader in this movement.
- Became Massachusetts’s first secretary of education.
- Convinced the state to double the school budget, raise teachers’ salaries,
lengthen the school year, and begin the first school for teacher training.
Women's Suffrage 3:17
19th Amendment - Women's Right to Vote
- Argued for equal pay for equal work—no
woman could be free without a “purse of her own.”
Susan B. Anthony
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
- Turned fight for women’s rights into a political movement.
- Wrote many documents and speeches of the movement.
- Founder and leader of National Woman Suffrage Association